Thai-Verfassung 2016 / Thai-Charta 2016 (English)

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Draft Constitution of the
Kingdom of Thailand
2016

Enacted on ………………… B.E. …….

Being the ………Year of the Present Reign

May there be virtue. Today is ………………………… (Lunar calendar and Solar calendar
are to be specified later), in the 2559th year of the Buddhist Era.
Phrabat Somdet Phra Paramintharamaha Bhumibol Adulyadej Mahitalathibet
Ramathibodi Chakkri Narubodin Sayammintharathirat Borommanatthabophit is graciously
pleased to proclaim that; whereas the Prime Minister has informed the King that since His
Majesty King Prajadhipok Phra Pokklao graciously granted the Constitution of the Kingdom of Siam, B.E. 2475, Thailand has continually upheld its intent to adhere to the principle of democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the State. Despite annulment, amendment, and promulgation of Constitutions on several occasions for the purpose of more appropriate administrative organization, the administration has not become stable or orderly owing to various problems and conflicts. Sometimes there have been constitutional crises with no solutions and partial causes thereof were attributed to the people who ignored or disobeyed administrative rules, corrupted or distorted power or did not recognize their responsibility to the nation and the public resulting in ineffective law enforcement. It is therefore of necessity to prevent and resolve these problems by means of educational reform and law enforcement and to strengthen a moral and ethical system.
Another reason concerned the consequences of political and administrative rules that were
not appropriate for the situation of the country and the time period, and attached
importance to the format and procedure rather than the fundamental principles of democracy; or were unable to enforce the existing rules to various individual behaviors and crises whose format and procedure were different from the past.
Accordingly, the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E.2 5 5 7,
Amendment (No. 1 ) B.E. 2 5 5 8 has provided for the establishment of the Constitution
Drafting Committee with the duty to draft a constitution to serve as the principle of
government and guideline for the drafting of organic laws and other laws, by prescribing
new mechanisms for organizing and strengthening the administration of the country based on: the restructuring of the duties and powers of various Constitutional Organizations; the relationship between the legislative and the executive branches, as appropriate; the opportunity for the judicial institutions and other independent organizations responsible for the scrutiny of the exercise of State power to perform their duties in an efficient, honest and fair fashion and to participate in the prevention or crisis resolution of the country as necessary and appropriate; the more explicit and comprehensive recognition and protection  of the rights and liberties of Thai people by holding the rights and liberties as the principle and the restriction of rights as the exception, however provided that the exercise of these rights and liberties must be within the rules to protect the general public. The provisions that the State shall be responsible to the people, and vice versa, and the placement of mechanisms to strictly prevent, monitor and eradicate corruption and misconduct – all are for the purpose of preventing leaders or officials of no morals, ethics and good governance from taking power in the administration of the country or exercising their power arbitrarily.
Stipulation of more effective measures to prevent and manage national crisis are also
provided, including the establishment of other mechanisms pursuant to the provisions of
the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim), B.E.2557, with a view to serving as a  framework for national development under the policy of the State and the national strategy  thereafter any ruler of the country may further formulate appropriate policies and  procedures. The Constitution also creates mechanisms for united national reform in various  important and necessary aspects as well as reduction of the conditions that lead to conflict  in order to build peace in the country on the basis of unity and reconciliation. To achieve  this goal requires co-operation from people in all sectors with the State agencies according  to the people-state concept under the rules pertaining to the principle of democratic government and traditional governance suitable for the situation and the characteristics of  Thai society, the integrity, the human rights and good governance principles which will drive  the development of the country in a strategic way towards political, economic and social stability, prosperity and sustainability in compliance with the democratic regime of  government with the King as Head of the State.
In the implementation thereof, the Constitution Drafting Committee has built public
awareness and understanding of the principles and justifications of all provisions on a
periodic basis so as to provide the opportunities for the public to widely access the Draft
Constitution and its explanations through a variety of media and to allow public
participation in the development of the content of the Draft by providing recommendations on the revision it so requires. Upon completion, the Draft Constitution has been disseminated to the public with the summary of explanations on its essence in a manner which enables the public to easily and generally understand it, and has organized a referendum to approve the entire Draft Constitution. The result of the referendum is ……..
(pending the terms that match the referendum result) ………………… . As such, the Prime
Minister has presented the Draft Constitution to the King for His signature thereafter it shall be promulgated as the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, and in this respect the King is of the opinion that…………………………….
The King therefore has issued a Royal Command for enactment of this Constitution
of the Kingdom of Thailand to replace the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim),
B.E.2557, enacted on 22nd July 2014, from the date of this promulgation onwards.
May the people of Thailand be unanimously united in observing and protecting this
Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand for the purpose of upholding the democratic
regime and sovereignty of the people of Thailand and brings peace, happiness, prosperity
and dignity to all citizens throughout the Kingdom in every respect in accordance with the
wish of His Majesty.

CHAPTER I
General Provisions
____________

Section 1 Thailand is one and indivisible Kingdom.
Section 2 Thailand adopts a democratic regime of government with the King
as Head of the State.
Section 3 The sovereign power belongs to the Thai people. The King as Head
of the State shall exercise such power through the National Assembly, the Council of
Ministers and the Courts in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
The National Assembly, the Council of Ministers, the Courts, the Constitutional
Organizations, and State organs shall perform duties in accordance with the Constitution,
laws, and the rule of law for the common interests of the country and the well-being of the
people as a whole.
Section 4 The human dignity, right, liberty and equality of the people shall
be protected.
The Thai people shall enjoy equal protection under the Constitution.
Section 5 The Constitution is the supreme law of the State. The provisions of
any law, rule, or regulation, or any action which are contrary to or inconsistent with the
Constitution shall be unenforceable.
Whenever no provision under this Constitution is applicable to any case, it shall
be acted or decided in accordance with the constitutional practice in the democratic regime
of government with the King as Head of the State.
In the event where the circumstance under Paragraph Two arises, the President
of the Constitutional Court shall convene a joint meeting of the President of the House of
Representatives, the Opposition Leader in the House of Representatives, the President of
the Senate, the Prime Minister, the President of the Supreme Court, the President of the

Supreme Administrative Court, the President of the Constitutional Court, and the Presidents
of Constitutional Organizations to make decision thereon.
The joint meeting under Paragraph Three shall elect one among themselves to
preside over each session. In case of the absence of any position holder, the joint meeting
shall be composed of the existing holders of the positions.
A decision of the joint meeting shall be made by the majority of votes. In case of
an equality of votes, the presiding member shall have an additional vote as a casting vote.
The decision of the joint meeting shall be deemed final and binding on the
National Assembly, the Council of Ministers, the Courts, the Constitutional Organizations,
and State organs.

CHAPTER II
The King
_____________

Section 6 The King shall be enthroned in a position of revered worship and
shall not be violated.
No person shall expose the King to any sort of accusation or action.
Section 7 The King is a Buddhist and Upholder of religions.
Section 8 The King holds the position of Head of the Thai Armed Forces.
Section 9 The King has the prerogative to create and remove titles and to
confer and recall decorations.
Section 10 The King selects and appoints qualified persons to be the
President of the Privy Council and not more than eighteen Privy Councilors to constitute the
Privy Council.
The Privy Council has the duty to render advice to the King on all matters
pertaining to His functions as He may consult, and has other duties as provided in the
Constitution.
Section 11 The selection and appointment or the removal of a Privy Councilor
shall be at the King’s pleasure.
The President of the National Assembly shall countersign the Royal Command
appointing or removing the President of the Privy Council.
The President of the Privy Council shall countersign the Royal Command
appointing or removing other Privy Councilors.
Section 12 A Privy Councilor shall not be a member of the House of
Representatives, a member of the Senate or a holder of any other political position, a judge
of the Constitutional Court, a position holder in a Constitutional Organization, a government
official, an official of a State enterprise, any other State official, or a member or an official of
a political party, and shall not manifest loyalty to any political party.

Section 13 Before taking office, a Privy Councilor shall make a solemn
declaration before the King in the following words:
“I, (name of the declarer), do solemnly declare that I will be loyal to His Majesty
the King and will faithfully perform my duties in the interests of the country and of the
people. I will further uphold and observe the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand in
every respect.”
Section 14 A Privy Councilor vacates office upon death, resignation, or
removal by a Royal Command.
Section 15 The appointment and removal of officials of the Royal Household
and of the Royal Chief Aide-de-Camp shall be at the King’s pleasure.

Bureaucracy organization and personnel administration in the service of the Royal
Household shall be at the King’s pleasure, as provided in the Royal Decree.

Section 16 Whenever the King is absent from the Kingdom or unable to
perform His functions for any reason whatsoever, the King will appoint a person as the
Regent and the President of the National Assembly shall countersign the Royal Command.
Section 17 In the case where the King does not appoint the Regent under
Section 16, or the King is unable to appoint the Regent owing to His not being sui juris or any
other reason whatsoever, the Privy Council shall submit the name of a person suitable to
hold the office of the Regent to the National Assembly for approval. Upon approval by the
National Assembly, the President of the National Assembly shall make an announcement, in
the name of the King, to appoint such person as the Regent.
Section 18 While there is no Regent under Section 16 or Section17, the
President of the Privy Council shall be Regent pro tempore.
In the case where the Regent appointed under Section 16 or Section 17 is unable
to perform his duties, the President of the Privy Council shall act as Regent pro tempore.
While being the Regent under Paragraph One or acting as the Regent under
Paragraph Two, the President of the Privy Council shall not perform his duties as President

of the Privy Council. In such case, the Privy Council shall select a Privy Councilor to act as
President of the Privy Council pro tempore.
Section 19 Before taking office, the Regent appointed under Section 16 or
Section 17 shall make a solemn declaration before the National Assembly in the following
words:
“I, (name of the declarer), do solemnly declare that I will be loyal to His Majesty
the King (name of the King) and will faithfully perform my duties in the interests of the
country and of the people. I will further uphold and observe the Constitution of the
Kingdom of Thailand in every respect.”
Section 20 Subject to Section 21, the succession to the Throne shall be in
accordance with the Palace Law on Succession, B.E. 2467.
The Amendment of the Palace Law on Succession, B.E. 2467 shall be the
prerogative of the King. At the initiative of the King, the Privy Council shall draft the Palace
Law Amendment and shall present it to the King for His consideration. When the King has
approved the draft Palace Law amendment and put His signature thereon, the President of
the Privy Council shall notify the President of the National Assembly for informing the
National Assembly. The President of the National Assembly shall countersign the Royal
Command and the Palace Law Amendment shall come into force upon its publication in the
Government Gazette.
Section 21 In the case where the Throne becomes vacant and the King has
already appointed His Heir to the Throne under the Palace Law on Succession, B.E. 2467, the
Council of Ministers shall notify the President of the National Assembly. The President of
the National Assembly shall convoke the National Assembly for the acknowledgement
thereof, and shall invite such Heir to ascend the Throne and proclaim such Heir the King.
Afterwards, the President of the National Assembly shall declare to keep the people
informed.
Under the circumstance where the Throne becomes vacant and the King has not
appointed His Heir under Paragraph One, the Privy Council shall submit the name of the
Successor to the Throne under Section 20 to the Council of Ministers for further submission

to the National Assembly for approval. For this purpose, the name of a Princess may be
submitted. Upon the approval of the National Assembly, the President of the National
Assembly shall invite such Successor to ascend the Throne and proclaim such Successor the
King.
Section 22 While pending the proclamation of the name of the Heir or the
Successor to the Throne under Section 21, the President of the Privy Council shall be Regent
pro tempore. In the event where the Throne becomes vacant while the Regent has been
appointed under Section 16 or Section 17 or while the President of the Privy Council is
acting as the Regent under Section 18 Paragraph One, such Regent, as the case may be,
shall continue to be the Regent until the proclamation of the name of the Heir or the
Successor to ascend the Throne as the King.
In the case where the Regent who has been appointed and continues to be the
Regent under Paragraph One is unable to perform his duties, the President of the Privy
Council shall act as Regent pro tempore.
In the case where the President of the Privy Council is the Regent under
Paragraph One or acts as Regent pro tempore under Paragraph Two, the provisions of
Section 18 Paragraph Three shall apply.
Section 23 In the event where the Privy Council will have to perform its duties
under Section 17 or Section 21 Paragraph Two, or the President of the Privy Council will
have to be or perform duties of the Regent pursuant to Section 18 Paragraph One or
Paragraph Two or Section 22 Paragraph Two, and during that period there is no President of
the Privy Council or the President of the Privy Council is unable to perform his duties, the
remaining Privy Councilors shall elect one among themselves to act as President of the Privy
Council or to be or perform duties of the Regent according to Section 18 Paragraph One or
Paragraph Two or Section 22 Paragraph Two, as the case may be.
Section 24 In taking an oath of allegiance before the King pursuant to the
Constitution or law, the King may endorse that it be carried out before His sui juris Heir or
His representative.
While the oath of allegiance under Paragraph One is not yet taken, His Majesty

may endorse the person having to take the oath of allegiance to perform duties pro
tempore.

 

CHAPTER III

Rights and Liberties of the Thai People
________________

Section 25 Where provisions of the Constitution are specifically enacted to
protect the rights and liberties of the Thai people and no act is prohibited or restricted by
the Constitution or other laws, a person shall have right and liberty to commit such act and
be protected under the Constitution in so far as the exercise of such right or liberty does not
affect or harm to the security of the State, public order or good morals of people , and is not
in violation of the rights and liberties of other persons.
Where the Constitution provides that the exercise of any right or liberty shall be
undertaken by virtue of law or in accordance with the rule and procedure prescribed by law,
despite that such law has not been enacted, a person or a community shall exercise such
right or liberty in compliance with the intent of the Constitution.
A person whose rights and liberties recognized by the Constitution are violated
may invoke the provisions of the Constitution to exercise his or her judicial right or to
defend himself or herself in court.
A person injured by violation of his or her rights or liberties or by a criminal
offence committed by another person shall be entitled to remedy or assistance from the
State in accordance with the law.
Section 26 Enactment of any law that results in the restriction on rights or
liberties of a person shall be in conformity with the conditions stipulated in the Constitution.
In the event where no condition is provided in the Constitution, such law shall not be
contrary to the rule of law or unreasonably increase burden or restrict the rights or liberties
of a person, shall not affect human dignity of a person, and shall specify therein the purpose
and necessity for imposing such restriction on rights and liberties.
The law under Paragraph One shall be of general application and shall not be
intended to apply to any particular case or person.

Section 27 All persons are equal before the law and shall enjoy equal
protection under the law.
Men and women shall enjoy equal rights.
Unjust discrimination against a person on the grounds of the difference in origin,
race, language, sex, age, disability, physical or health condition, personal status, economic or
social standing, religious belief, education or political view that does not violate the
provisions of this constitution, or any other ground shall be prohibited.
Measures determined by the State for the purpose of eliminating an obstacle or
promoting ability of a person to exercise his or her rights or liberties as other persons, or for
the purpose of protecting or facilitating children, women, elderly persons, persons with
disabilities, or disadvantaged persons shall not be deemed as unjust discrimination under
Paragraph Three.
Members of the armed forces and the police force, government officials, other
State officials, and officials or employees of State organizations shall enjoy the same rights
and liberties as other persons, unless such enjoyment is restricted by the law specifically
enacted in regard to politics, efficiency, disciplines or ethics.
Section 28 A person shall enjoy the right and liberty in life and body.
Arrest and detention of a person shall not be permitted, except by a court order
or warrant or any other ground as specified by law.
Search of a person or any act affecting the right and liberty in life or body shall
not be permitted, unless there is a ground specified by law.
A torture, brutal act or punishment by cruel or inhumane means shall be
prohibited.
Section 29 No person shall be inflicted with a criminal punishment, unless he
or she has committed an act which the law in force at the time of the commission provides
to be an offence and specifies a penalty thereof, and the punishment to be inflicted on such
person shall not be heavier than that prescribed by the law in force at the time of the
commission of the offence.

In a criminal case, the alleged offender or the defendant shall be presumed
innocent. Before the passing of a final judgment convicting any person of having committed
an offence, such person shall not be treated as a convict.
Custody or detention of an alleged offender or a defendant shall be undertaken
merely to the extent of necessity to prevent escape.
In a criminal case, a person shall not be forced to make a statement incriminating
himself or herself.
In a criminal case, an application for a bail of the alleged offender or the
defendant shall be accepted for consideration and an unreasonably excessive bail shall not
be permitted. The refusal of a bail shall be based on provisions of the law.
Section 30 Forced labor shall be prohibited, except by virtue of the provisions
of law enacted for the purpose of averting imminent public calamity or during the
declaration of state of emergency or the imposition of the martial law or during the time
when the country is in a state of war or armed conflict.
Section 31 A person shall enjoy full liberty to profess a religion, and shall
enjoy the liberty to observe or perform rites according to own religion, provided that it shall
not be prejudicial to the duties of Thai people, be harmful to the security of the State, and
be contrary to the public order or good morals of people.
Section 32 A person shall enjoy the rights of privacy, dignity, reputation, and
family.
An act violating or affecting the rights of a person under Paragraph One, or the
use of personal information for benefit by any means shall not be permitted, except by
virtue of the provisions of the law specifically enacted as deemed necessary for the public
interests.
Section 33 A person shall enjoy the liberty of dwelling.

The entry into a dwelling without consent of its possessor, or the search of a
dwelling or a private place shall not be permitted, except by a court order or warrant or any
other ground as specified by law.

Section 34 A person shall enjoy the liberty to express his opinion, make
speech, write, print, publicize, and make expression by other means. Restriction on such
liberty shall not be permitted, except by virtue of the provisions of the law specifically
enacted for the purpose of maintaining the security of the State, protecting the rights or
liberties of other persons, maintaining public order or good morals of people, or
safeguarding the health of the people.
Academic freedom shall be protected, provided that the exercise of such freedom
shall not be contrary to the duties of Thai people or good morals of people and shall respect
and not impede differing opinions of other persons.
Section 35 A person of mass media profession shall enjoy the liberty to
report news or express opinion in compliance with professional ethics.
The closure of newspaper or other mass media business in deprivation of the
liberty under Paragraph One shall not be permitted.
The direction to forward news or statements written by mass media professionals
for censorship by a competent official prior to their publication in a newspaper or any form
of media shall not be permitted, except during the time when the country is in a state of
war.
The owner of a newspaper or other mass media business shall be of Thai
nationality.
No money or property shall be granted by the State as subsidy to a private
newspaper or other forms of mass media. Any State agency granting money or property to
mass media, regardless of the purpose of advertisement or public relation or of any other
purpose of the same nature, shall disclose detailed information to the State Audit
Commission within the specified period and announce to the public thereof.
State officials performing mass media duties shall enjoy the liberty under
Paragraph One, with due regard given to the objectives and the tasks of their agencies.
Section 36 A person shall enjoy the liberty of communication by whatsoever
means.

The censorship, detention or disclosure of communication between persons
including any other act, with a view to being aware of or obtaining information therein, shall
not be permitted, except by a court order or warrant or any other ground as specified by
law.
Section 37 A person shall enjoy the right in property and inheritance.
Scope of the right and the restriction thereof shall be in compliance with the
provisions of law.
Expropriation of immovable property shall not be permitted, except by virtue of
the provisions of the law specifically enacted for the purpose of public utilities, national
defense, or acquisition of national resources, or other public benefits, and fair
compensation shall be paid within a reasonable period to the owner including all right
holders of the property who are damaged by such expropriation, with due regard given to
public interests, impact on the damaged person, and possible benefits for the damaged
person.
The expropriation of immovable property shall be carried out merely to the
extent of necessity for the purposes specified in Paragraph Three, unless the expropriation
is intended for fair compensation to the owner of the immovable property expropriated
according to the law.
The law on expropriation of immovable property shall explicitly specify the
purpose of the expropriation and the period of time to fulfill such purpose. If the
immovable property is not used to fulfill such purpose within the specified period or there
is immovable property remained from usage, and the original owner or his or her heir
recalls it, the immovable property shall be returned to the original owner or the heir.
The period of time for the recall and the return of the expropriated immovable
property which is unused or remained from usage to the original owner or his or her heir
and the recall of paid compensation shall be in accordance with the provisions of the law.

Enactment of the law on expropriation of immovable property with specification
of the immovable property or of the owner of the immovable property which is
expropriated on account of necessity shall not be deemed contrary to Section 26 Paragraph

Two.

Section 38 A person shall enjoy the liberty of travelling and the liberty of
making the choice of his or her residence.
Restriction on such liberties under Paragraph One shall not be permitted, except
by virtue of the provisions of the law enacted for the purpose of maintaining the security of
the State, public order or public welfare of people, town and country planning, or for
securing family status or for welfare of the youth.
Section 39 No person of Thai nationality shall be deported or prohibited
from entering the Kingdom.
Revocation of Thai nationality acquired by birth of a person shall not be
permitted.
Section 40 A person shall enjoy the liberty to engage in an occupation.
Restriction on the liberty under Paragraph One shall not be permitted, except by
virtue of the provisions of the law enacted for the purpose of maintaining the security and
economy of the State, fair competition, preventing or eliminating barrier or monopoly,
consumer protection, or regulating the engagement in an occupation to the extent of
necessity, or for the purpose of other public interests.
Enactment of a law to regulate the engagement in an occupation as provided in
Paragraph Two shall not be of discriminatory nature or an intervention in the educational
management of educational institutions.
Section 41 A person and a community shall enjoy the right;
(1) to be informed of and have access to public information or news in
possession of State agencies as provided by law,
(2) to submit a petition to a State agency and be informed of the result of its
consideration without delay,
(3) to bring an action against a State agency holding it liable for an act or
omission of an act as committed by its government official, official and employee.

Section 42 A person shall enjoy the liberty to unite and form an association, a
co-operative, a union, an organization, a community, or any other group.
Restriction on the liberty under Paragraph One shall not be permitted, except by
virtue of the provisions of the law enacted for the purpose of protecting public interest,
maintaining public order or good morals of people, or preventing or eliminating barrier or
monopoly.
Section 43 A person and a community shall enjoy the right;
(1) to conserve, restore, or promote wisdom, art, culture, tradition and custom
of good value in the locality and the nation,
(2) to manage, maintain and utilize natural resources, environment, and
biodiversity in a balanced and sustainable manner according to the procedure prescribed by
law.
(3) to sign and submit a petition with recommendations to a State agency to
undertake any act which will be beneficial to the people or the community or to omit any
act which will affect peaceful livelihood of the people or the community, and to be informed
of the result of its consideration without delay. In this regard, such State agency shall, with
participation of the concerned people, consider the recommendations according to the
procedure prescribed by law.
(4) to arrange for a community welfare system.
The rights of the person and the community under Paragraph One shall include
the right to engage with local administration organizations or the State in the undertaking of
the actions.
Section 44 A person shall enjoy the liberty to assemble peacefully and
without arms.

Restriction on the liberty under Paragraph One shall be prohibited, except by
virtue of the provisions of the law enacted for the purpose of maintaining the security of
the State, public safety, public order or good morals of people, or protecting the rights or
liberties of other persons.
Section 45 A person shall enjoy the liberty to unite and establish a political

party in conformity with democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the
State, as required by law.
The law under Paragraph One shall at least contain therein the provisions
requiring management of a political party to be transparent and accountable, to provide an
opportunity for its members to broadly participate in policy formulation and nomination of
electoral candidates, and to prescribe measures enabling independence without
domination or direction given by any person who is not a member of such political party,
and measures governing its members not to commit an act violating or failing to observe
the law on election.
Section 46 The right of a consumer shall be protected.
A person shall have the right to unite and establish a consumer organization with
a view to protecting the rights of consumers.
The consumer organization under Paragraph Two shall have the right to unite and
establish an independent organization in order to, with support rendered by the State,
become powerful in the protection and safeguard of the rights of consumers. In this respect,
the rule and procedure for the establishment, the authority to represent consumers, and
the financial support from the State shall be as prescribed by law.
Section 47 A person shall enjoy the right to access public health service of
the State.
An impoverished person shall be entitled to access public health service of the
State, without charge, in compliance with the law.
A person shall be entitled to prevention and eradication of harmful contagious
diseases by the State without charge.
Section 48 The rights of a mother during the period before and after delivery
shall be protected and assisted in accordance with the law.
A person who is over sixty years of age with insufficient income for living and an
impoverished person shall be entitled to appropriate assistance from the State in
accordance with the law.

Section 49 No person shall exercise his or her rights or liberties to overthrow
the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the State.
Whoever detects the act under Paragraph One shall have the right to request the
Attorney General to submit a motion to the Constitutional Court to consider ordering
cessation of such act.
In the event where the Attorney General issues an order rejecting the request or
fails to act as requested within fifteen days from the date of receipt of the request, the
person requesting thereto may directly submit a petition to the Constitutional Court.
The proceeding under this Section shall be without prejudice to the institution of
criminal proceedings against the person who has committed the act as aforementioned in
Paragraph One.

 

CHAPTER IV

Duties of the Thai People

Section 50 A person shall have the following duties:
(1) to uphold the Nation, religions, the King, and the democratic regime of
government with the King as Head of the State;
(2) to defend the country and uphold the prestige and interest of the nation and
public property of the Kingdom, including cooperate in prevention and mitigation of
disasters;
(3) to strictly abide by law;
(4) to attend compulsory education and training;
(5) to serve in armed force as required by the law;
(6) to respect and refrain from violation of the rights and liberties of other
persons and not commit any act that may cause disharmony or hatred in the society;
(7) to freely exercise the right to vote at an election or a public referendum,
importantly bearing in mind the common interests of the country;
(8) to cooperate and support the conservation and protection of environment,
natural resources, biodiversity, and cultural heritage;
(9) to pay tax as required by the law; and
(10) to refuse to cooperate with or provide support to all forms of corruption and
wrongful conduct.

 

CHAPTER V
Duties of the State
___________________

Section 51 Where any act is stipulated in the Constitution as the duty of
the State under this Chapter and such act is for the direct benefit of public interest, the
people and the communities shall have the right to follow up and accelerate the
performance of the State, as well as filing a complaint against the relevant State agency
so as to ensure such benefit for the people or the communities, in conformity with the
rules and procedure prescribed by law.
Section 52 The State shall protect and uphold the Royal Institution, the
independence, the sovereignty, the territorial integrity and the territory under
sovereignty of Thailand, the national prestige and interests, the security of the State,
and the public order of people. For the purpose herein, the State shall arrange for the
efficacy of armed forces, diplomacy and intelligence.
The armed forces shall also serve in the national development.
Section 53 The State shall ensure strict compliance with and
enforcement of the laws.
Section 54 The State shall ensure the availability of compulsory
education of good quality and with no charge for a period of twelve years for all
children, beginning from the pre-school level.
The State shall ensure the provision of care and development for pre-school
children prior to the education under Paragraph One for the purpose of physical,
mental, disciplinary, emotional, social and intellectual development appropriate to
their ages. For such purpose, the State shall promote and enhance the participation of
local administration organizations and private sector therein.
The State shall ensure the availability of different educational systems
according to the needs of people, including the promotion of life time learning. The
State shall facilitate the cooperation among the State, local administration

organizations and private sector in the provision of education at all levels thereof the
State has the duty to operate, supervise, promote, and support such education to be of
good quality and meet international standard. In this respect, the law on national
education requires that at least there shall be provisions related to development of a
national education plan including implementation and monitoring to ascertain
compliance with the plan.
Education of all forms shall aim at developing learners to become good
people, well-disciplined, proud of the nation, capable with own skills, and responsible
for family, community, society and the country.
To ensure that young children are cared for and developed as provided in
Paragraph Two or that people are educated as stipulated in Paragraph Three, the State
shall make available the fund to support educational expenses of the impoverished in
relation to their skills.
There shall be established a Fund to assist the impoverished in order to
reduce the educational disparity and to strengthen and improve the quality and
efficiency of teachers. The State shall allocate budget to the Fund or apply tax
measures or mechanisms and allow the contributors to the Fund to benefit from tax
deduction, as provided by law. The law herein shall minimally require independent
management of the Fund and utilization of the Fund for achieving the purpose thereof.
Section 55 The State shall ensure the availability of efficient public
health service for all people, increase the basic knowledge of health promotion and
disease prevention, and promote and support the development of wisdom on Thai
traditional medicine for realization of maximum benefits.
The public health service under Paragraph One shall be inclusive of health
promotion, disease control and prevention, medical treatment, and health
rehabilitation.
The State shall continually develop the public health service for the purpose
of good quality and higher standard.
Section 56 The State shall provide or arrange for basic public utilities

essential for the livelihood of all people, in consistent with the principle of sustainable
development.
Concerning fundamental structure or network of the basic public utility
enterprise of the State essential for the livelihood of people or for the security of the
State, the State shall refrain from undertaking any act to give rise to the private sector
the ownership thereof or to reduce its ownership shares to lower than fifty one
percent.
Where the State provides or arranges for the public utilities under
Paragraph One or Paragraph Two, the State shall ensure that the fees are not so high as
to create unreasonable burden on the people.
The transfer in any respect of the public utilities of the State to the private
sector for business purpose, the State shall attain fair benefits in return, taking into
consideration the investment by the State, the possible benefits for the State and the
private sector, and the fees to be collected from people.
Section 57 The State shall;
(1) conserve, restore and promote local wisdom, art, culture, tradition and
custom of good value in the locality and the nation, and provide public space for the
activities related thereto, and promote and support people, communities and local
administration organizations to exercise their rights and participate in the
implementation described herein,
(2) conserve, protect, maintain, restore, manage, and utilize or arrange for
utilization of natural resources, environment, and biodiversity to attain benefits in a
balanced and sustainable manner and shall allow the people and communities in the
concerned localities to participate in and benefit from the implementation herein
described as required by the law.
Section 58 In the case where any activity to be implemented by the
State or with permission of the State may seriously constitute impact on natural
resources, environmental quality, health, hygiene, quality of life or any other
substantial interest of people or community or environment, the State shall manage for
the undertaking of a study and an evaluation of impact on environmental quality and

health of the people or community, and for the consultation with the concerned
stakeholders, the people and the community beforehand with a view to supporting the
consideration to implement or to grant permission according to the law.
A person and a community shall have the right to obtain information,
explanation and justification from State agencies prior to the implementation or the
permission under Paragraph One.
For the implementation or the permission under Paragraph One, the State
shall take cautions to minimize the impact on people, community, environment and
biodiversity to the least extent, and shall fairly and promptly arrange for the provision
of remedy for the suffering or the damage to the people or community affected
thereby.
Section 59 The State shall disclose public information or news in
possession of State agencies which are not in respect of security of the State or official
secrets as specified by law, and shall facilitate public access to such information or
news.
Section 60 The State shall maintain transmission frequencies and the
right to access and utilize the satellite orbits, which are properties of the nation, in the
interests of the country and the people.
The utilization of the transmission frequencies under Paragraph One,
irrespective of the purpose of radio and television broadcasting and
telecommunication or any other purpose, shall give regard to the utmost benefit of the
people, the security of the State, and the public interest, and shall allow people to take
part in the utilization thereof, as provided by law.
The State shall provide for establishment of an independent State
organization entrusted with the duty to govern the operation pertaining to
transmission frequencies in a manner specified under Paragraph Two. In this regard,
such organization shall develop measures to prevent unfair exploitation of or
excessively unnecessary burden for consumers, interference of frequencies, the acts
that result in obstructing the freedom of knowing or hindering the receipt of true

information or news of the public, and prevent a person or a group of persons from
utilizing frequencies with no regard to the rights of the general public. The organization
shall further determine the minimal proportion to be undertaken by the users of
frequencies in the interest of the public, as provided by law.
Section 61 The State shall provide effective measures or mechanisms to
protect and uphold the rights of consumers in various aspects, inclusive of their
knowledge of true information, safety, fair contracting, or any other aspect beneficial
to consumers.
Section 62 The State shall strictly maintain the fiscal discipline with a
view to stabilizing and securing the finance of the State in a sustainable manner
pursuant to the law on fiscal discipline of the State, and shall organize the tax system
for the purpose of fairness in the society.
The law on fiscal discipline of the State shall minimally contain the
provisions with respect to operational framework of public finance and budget of the
State, determination of income and expenditures, both budgetary and non-budgetary,
management of properties of the State and treasury reserves, and public debt
management.
Section 63 The State shall promote, support and educate the public in
regard to the harm caused by corruption and misconduct in public and private sectors,
and arrange for effective measures and mechanisms to rigorously prevent and
eradicate corruption and misconduct as well as mechanisms to enhance people to
jointly participate in the campaigns for awareness raising, combating or clue pointing
thereof, under protection by the State as provided by law.

 

CHAPTER VI
Policies of the State
_________________

Section 64 The provisions under this Chapter shall serve as directive
principles of legislation and determination of policies for the administration of State
affairs.
Section 65 The State shall develop a national strategy as the goal for
sustainable development of the country based on the principle of good governance
with a view to serving as a framework for coherent and integrated planning of all kinds
that give rise to a mutual force towards such goal.
Development, determination of the goal, period of time required to achieve
the goal, and due essences of the national strategy shall be in accordance with the
rules and procedure prescribed by law. In this regard, such law shall contain the
provisions concerning participation of and consultation with people in all sectors
throughout.
The national strategy shall enter into force upon its publication in the
Government Gazette.
Section 66 The State shall promote friendly relations with other
countries on the basis of equality and non-interference in domestic affairs, cooperate
with international organizations, and protect the interests of the country and of Thai
nationals residing overseas.
Section 67 The State shall patronize and protect Buddhism and other
religions.
With a view to patronizing and protecting the Buddhism, which has long
been professed by the Thai people, the State shall promote and support education and
propagation of principles thereof for the purpose of mind and intellectual
development, and shall establish measures and mechanisms to prevent the

desecration of Buddhism in any form and encourage the participation of all Buddhists
in the application of such measures and mechanisms.
Section 68 The State shall manage the administration of justice in all
aspects in an efficient, fair and non-discriminatory manner, and shall facilitate public
access to convenient, speedy, and low cost justice process.
The State shall provide protective measures for State officials in the
administration of justice in order to enable them to strictly perform their duties
without interference or domination in any way.
The State shall provide necessary and appropriate legal assistance,
including the provision of lawyers, to the impoverished or the underprivileged to
enable their access to the justice process.
Section 69 The State shall provide and promote research and
development of science and technology as well as various disciplines of arts in order to
constitute knowledge, development and innovation for strengthening the society and
enhancing competence of people in the nation.
Section 70 The State shall promote and protect the rights of Thai people
of different ethnic groups to live voluntarily and peacefully without disturbances in the
society according to their culture, custom and traditional ways of life, in so far as such
livelihood is not contrary to public order or good morals of people, or does not harm
the security of the State or health.
Section 71 The State shall empower the family institution which is an
essentially fundamental element of the society, provide appropriate habitation for
people, promote and enhance development of public health for the good health and
strong mind of people, and promote and develop sports to the level of excellence and
in the best interest of the public.
The State shall promote and develop human resources to become good
citizens of better quality and higher competence.
The State shall provide assistance to children, youth, women, the elderly,
persons with disabilities, the impoverished and the underprivileged to enable them to

live in good quality conditions, and shall protect them from violence or unfair
treatment, as well as providing the injured therefrom with treatment, rehabilitation,
and remedy.
When allocating the budget, the State shall take into consideration of the
different necessities and needs on the basis of sex, age and individual condition, for the
purpose of fairness.
Section 72 The State shall undertake the proceedings with respect to
land, water resources and energy as follows:
(1) plan for the use of lands in the country in a manner complying with their
conditions and potentials under the principle of sustainable development;
(2) make available the town planning at all levels and enforce effective
implementation of the plans, and develop towns in conformity with the needs of local
people;
(3) adopt the measure to fairly distribute the possession of lands in order
for people to thoroughly and fairly access lands for making their livings;
(4) provide the quality water resources adequately for the consumption by
people and for use in agriculture, industry, and other sectors;
(5) promote the conservation and worthy utilization of energy, and develop
and promote the production and use of alternative energy with the aim to sustainably
securing energy.
Section 73 The State shall provide measures or mechanisms to assist
farmers in carrying out efficient agriculture that yields production of high quantity and
quality, low cost safety, and marketing competitive ability, and shall assist poor farmers
in accessing farming lands either by means of land reform or any other means.
Section 74 The State shall enhance people to be capable of carrying out
the work suitable to their capacities and ages and of obtaining employment. The State
shall ensure the protection of work safety and hygiene for workers and the receipt of
income, welfare, social security and other benefits appropriate for their livelihoods,
and shall provide or promote the savings for their retirement.
The State shall arrange for a system of labor relations thereof all concerned

parties participate in the process.
Section 75 The State shall organize the economic system that allows
people to comprehensively, fairly and sustainably benefit from economic growth and
to become self-reliant according to the philosophy of sufficiency economy, eradicates
unfair economic monopoly, and that develops capacity of the people and the country
to respond to the economic competition.
The State shall refrain from any engagement in an enterprise in a manner
of competition with the private sector, unless it is of necessity for the maintenance of
security of the State, the maintenance of public interest, the provision of public
utilities, or the provision of public services.
The State shall promote, support, protect and stabilize cooperatives
system of all types, and small and medium enterprises of the people and the
communities.
With respect to the national development, the State shall give due regard
to the balance between objective development and development of mind and well-
being of the people.
Section 76 The State shall develop a system for the administration of
State affairs at the central, regional, local levels and for other affairs of the State in
compliance with the principle of good governance, and State agencies shall mutually
cooperate and support the performance of duties with a view to enhancing maximum
efficacy of the State administration, the public services and the spending of budget in
the interest of people. The State shall develop honesty and attitude of State officials to
serve the public in a convenient, speedy, and non-discriminatory fashion with efficient
performance.
The State shall make available a law on human resources management of
State agencies to comply with the ethical standards. Such law shall minimally prescribe
measures to prevent any person from abusing power or committing misconduct in a
manner to intervene or interfere in the performance of duties, the appointment
process, or the consideration of laurels of State officials.

The State shall establish ethical standards for use by State agencies as the
basis for formulating the code of ethics of the agencies that shall not be lower than the
standards established herein.
Section 77 The State shall enact laws merely to the extent of necessity
and promptly repeal or improve the laws which are unnecessary or incompatible with
the current context, or are obstacles to the livelihood or occupation so as to avoid
burdens on the people. The State shall facilitate public access to and public
understanding of the laws in order for people to properly act in compliance therewith.
Prior to the enactment of any law, the State shall conduct consultation with
the stakeholders, thoroughly and systematically assess possible impact of the law, and
disclose results of the consultation and the assessment to the public as well as taking
such results into consideration at every stage of the legislation process. While the law
comes into force, the State shall undertake an evaluation of the achievement of the
law on a specified periodic basis, including the feedbacks from all stakeholders thereof,
with a view to developing all laws in a manner corresponding with and appropriate for
the changing contexts.
The State shall apply permit and committee systems in the legislation
specifically only in case of necessity, shall explicitly prescribe rules for the exercise of
discretion by State officials and the period of time required for implementation of each
stage as provided by the law, and shall impose criminal penalty specifically only for
serious offences.
Section 78 The State shall promote accurate knowledge and
understanding of people and communities in relation to the democratic regime of
government with the King as Head of the State, and their participation in various
aspects of the national development, inpublic services at the national and the local
levels, in examination of the exercise of State power, in combating the corruption and
misconduct, in political decision making, and in all matters that may affect the people
or the communities.

 

CHAPTER VII
National Assembly
______________
Part 1
General Provisions
______________

Section 79 The National Assembly consists of the House of Representatives
and the Senate.
Joint or separate sittings of the National Assembly shall be in accordance with
the provisions of the Constitution.
No person shall be a member of the House of Representatives or a senator
simultaneously.
Section 80 The President of the House of Representatives shall be President
of the National Assembly. The President of the Senate shall be Vice-President of the
National Assembly.
In the case where there is no President of the House of Representatives or the
President of the House of Representatives is not present or is unable to perform his or her
duty as President of the National Assembly, the President of the Senate shall act as
President of the National Assembly in his or her place.
When the President of the Senate must act as President of the National
Assembly under Paragraph Two and there is no such person, and the case arises when
there is no House of Representatives, the Vice-President of the Senate shall act as
President of the National Assembly. In the event where there is no Vice-President of the
Senate, the existing oldest member of the Senate shall act as President of the National
Assembly, and election of the President of the Senate shall proceed promptly.

The President of the National Assembly shall have the powers and duties as
provided by the Constitution and shall conduct the proceedings of the National Assembly,
with respect to the joint sittings, in accordance with the rules of procedure.
The President of the National Assembly and the person acting in his or her place
shall be impartial in the performance of duties.
The Vice-President of the National Assembly shall have the powers and duties as
provided by the Constitution and as entrusted by the President of the National Assembly.
Section 81 An organic law bill or a bill may be enacted only by advice and
with consent of the National Assembly.
Subject to Section 145, upon approval of an organic law bill and a bill by the
National Assembly, the Prime Minister shall submit it to the King for His signature, and
such bill shall come into force upon its publication in the Government Gazette.
Section 82 Members of the House of Representatives or members of the
Senate of not less than one-tenth of the total number of the existing members of each
House shall have the right to lodge a complaint with the President of the House they are
members thereof asserting that the membership of any member of such House has
terminated pursuant to Section 101 (3), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), or (12) or Section 111 (3),
(4), (5), or (7), as the case may be, and the President of the House therewith the complaint
is lodged shall forward the complaint to the Constitutional Court for adjudication as to
whether or not the membership of such person has terminated.
Upon receipt of the complaint by the Constitutional Court, and there appears a
reasonable ground to suspect the member in question as complained, the Constitutional
Court shall order such member to cease to perform duties until the Constitutional Court
issues a decision. As soon as the Constitutional Court has issued its decision, it shall notify
the President of the House therewith the complaint is lodged under Paragraph One of such
decision. In case that the membership of the member is terminated by the decision of the
Constitutional Court, such member shall vacate office as from the date of cessation of
duties without prejudice to any act undertaken in his or her capacity prior to the vacation
of office.

The member of the House of Representatives or the Senate who has ceased to
perform duties under Paragraph Two shall not be included in the total number of the
existing members of each House.
Under the circumstance where the Election Commission is of opinion that the
membership of any member of the House of Representatives or a senator has terminated
under Paragraph One, it shall refer the matter to the Constitutional Court for adjudication
pursuant to Paragraph One.

Part 2
The House of Representatives
______________

Section 83 The House of Representatives consists of five hundred members

including;

(1) three hundred and fifty members from the election on a constituency basis,
(2) one hundred and fifty members from the election on a party list basis.
In the event where the office of a member of the House of Representatives
becomes vacant for any reason and an election or announcement of a member of the
House of Representatives has not been held to fill the vacancy, the House of
Representatives shall consist of the existing members of the House.
Where for any reason the party list members of the House of Representatives
remain less than one hundred and fifty, the party list members shall consist of the existing
members.
Section 84 In the case where a general election results in ninety five percent
of the total number of members of the House of Representatives and it is necessary to
convene a sitting of the National Assembly, the sitting shall proceed and the existing
members shall constitute the House of Representatives. The acquisition for the shortfall of
the number of members of the House of Representatives pursuant to Section 83 shall be
fulfilled without delay and such acquired members shall hold office only for the remaining
term of the House of Representatives.

Section 85 Election of members of the House of Representatives on a
constituency basis shall be by direct suffrage and secret ballot, and there shall be one
member of the House of Representatives in each constituency. An eligible voter shall have
the right to cast ballot for one candidate or not to cast ballot for any candidate in his or her
constituency.
The candidate who has received the highest votes and such votes are higher
than the votes not cast for any candidate in a constituency shall be elected.
The rules, procedure and conditions in respect of application for candidacy,
ballot-casting, vote-counting, calculation of the total votes, announcement of the result of
the election, and other related matters shall be in accordance with the Organic Law on
Election of Members of the House of Representatives therein every candidate is also
required to submit the proof of tax income return in support of the application.
The Election Commission shall announce the result of the election following the
preliminary examination wherefrom the findings reveal a reasonable ground to believe
that the election is of honest and fair manner, and where such result represents up to
ninety five percent of all constituencies. For this purpose, the Election Commission shall
conduct a preliminary examination and announce the result of the election without delay
and not later than sixty days as from the date of election. The announcement of the result
shall not preclude the powers and duties of the Election Commission from pursuing
investigation, inquiry or adjudication should there be a reasonable ground to suspect that
an act of dishonesty has been committed at the election or the election is not honest or
fair, regardless of whether or not the result has been announced.
Section 86 In determining the number of members of the House of
Representatives in each province and the division of constituencies, the following
procedure shall be carried out:
(1) divide the number of inhabitants throughout the country as evidenced in
the census announced in the year preceding the year of election by the number of three
hundred and fifty members of the House of Representatives and the result thereof shall be
the number of inhabitants per one member;

(2) any province with the number of inhabitants below the number of
inhabitants per one member under (1) shall have one member of the House of
Representative and the province is regarded a constituency;
(3) any province with the number of inhabitants above the number of
inhabitants per one member shall have an additional member of the House of
Representatives for every such number of inhabitants entitled to have one member;
(4) upon the number of members of the House of Representatives of each
province being obtained under (2) and (3), and the number of members of the House of
Representatives is still less than three hundred and fifty, any province with the largest
fraction remained from the calculation under (3) shall have an additional member of the
House of Representatives and the addition of the members of the House of
Representatives in accordance with such procedure shall be applied to the province in
respective order of fractions remained from the calculation until the total number of three
hundred and fifty is obtained;
(5) in a province where the number of members of the House of
Representatives is more than one, such province shall be divided into constituencies in the
number equal to the number of members of the House of Representatives as may be
elected therein and, for this purpose, the boundary of each constituency shall be adjacent
and the number of inhabitants in each constituency shall be closely apportioned.
Section 87 A candidate in an election of members of the House of
Representatives on a constituency basis shall be nominated to stand for election by the
party he or she is a member thereof, and may not stand for election in more than one
constituency.
Following application of candidacy, a candidate or a political party may
withdraw the application for election or change the candidate only under the exceptional
circumstance where the original candidate dies or is disqualified or falls under any
prohibition, and such either act shall be undertaken prior to the closing date of application.
Section 88 Each political party nominating candidates in a general election
shall present, to the Election Commission before the closing date of application, a list of
not more than three persons nominated by such party to be considered by the House of

Representatives for appointment as the Prime Minister, and the Election Commission shall
announce the names therein to the public and the provisions of Section 87 Paragraph Two
shall apply mutatis mutandis.
A political party may or may not nominate a list under Paragraph One.
Section 89 The nomination of persons pursuant to Section 88 shall be in
accordance with the rules as prescribed hereunder:
(1) there must be a written consent from every person nominated which
contains the details as required by the Election Commission;
(2) the nominated person must have the qualifications and not fall under the
prohibitions of being a minister under Section 160, and must never give the written
consent according to (1) to any other political party in that election.
Failure to comply with Paragraph One in regard to the nomination of any
person shall be regarded as absent nomination.
Section 90 Any political party nominates candidates for an election on a
constituency basis shall be entitled to nominate party list candidates.
In nominating candidates for an election on a party list basis, each political party
shall prepare one list of the names of candidates and such names shall not be repeated in
the lists prepared by other parties and not duplicate with candidates in the election on a
constituency basis. The party shall submit the list to the Election Commission prior to the
closing date of application for candidacy in the election on a constituency basis.
The process for preparation of the list by a political party under Paragraph Two
shall engage members of the party, with regard given to candidates from equitably various
regions and gender equality.
Section 91 Calculation of the number of party list members of the House of
Representatives from each political party shall follow the following procedure:
(1) combine the total number of votes from the election on a constituency basis
throughout the country as obtained by all political parties that nominate party list
candidates, and divide it by five hundred which represents the total number of members of
the House of Representatives;

(2) divide the total number of votes from the election on a constituency basis
throughout the country as obtained by each political party by the result from (1), and the
quotient shall be the number of seats in the House of Representatives of that party;
(3) less the number of members of the House of Representatives a political party
shall have under (2) by the total number of constituency members of the House of
Representatives of that party, and the result shall be the number of party list members of
the House of Representatives of that party;
(4) in the case where any political party has the number of constituency
members of the House of Representatives equal to or higher than the total number of
seats the party shall have under (2), such party shall have members of the House of
Representatives in the number as elected on a constituency basis and shall not be entitled
to the apportionment of party list seats, and the total number of party list seats shall be
apportioned, on a pro rata basis, among the political parties thereof the numbers of
constituency members of the House of Representatives are lower than their determined
numbers of seats in the House of Representatives under (2), but shall not result in the
numbers of members of the House of Representatives excessive of the numbers they are
entitled to under (2);
(5) upon conclusion of the number of the party list seats for each political party,
candidates in respective numerical order in the list of such party shall be elected as
members of the House of Representatives;
In the event that any candidate dies after the closing date of application for
election but before the closing hour of ballot-casting on the day of election, the votes cast
for the deceased candidate shall be reckoned in under (1) and (2).
Vote counting, the rules and method of calculation, the determination of ratio,
and the announcement of the result of the election shall be in accordance with the Organic
Law on Election of Members of the House of Representatives.
Section 92 A re-election shall be conducted in the constituency where no
candidate has received votes higher than the votes not cast for any candidate, and the
votes of each candidate shall not be counted in the calculation under Section 91. In such
case, the Election Commission shall reopen an application for candidacy thereto all

previous candidates shall not be entitled.
Section 93 In a general election, if a new election on a constituency basis is
required for some constituencies or polling stations prior to the announcement of the
result, or the election has not completed, or the announcement of result has not
completed for every constituency for whatever reason, the calculation of the total number
of members of the House of Representatives and the number of party list members of the
House of Representatives respectively entitled by each political party shall be in
accordance with the rules, procedure, and conditions as prescribed in the Organic Law on
Election of Members of the House of Representatives.
In the case where the calculation under Paragraph One results in the decrease in
number of party list seats of any political party in the House of Representatives, the party
list members at the bottom of the list of such party shall vacate office.
Section 94 Within one year as from the date of a general election, if a by-
election of member of the House of Representatives on a constituency basis is of necessity
for any constituency owing to the ground of dishonesty or unfairness, the provisions of
Section 93 shall apply mutatis mutandis.
An election of a member of the House of Representative to fill a vacancy,
irrespective of any reason whatsoever, after one year from the date of the general election
shall not prejudice the calculation of the number of seats of each political party in the
House of Representatives as provided in Section 91.
Section 95 A person having the following qualifications has the right to vote
at an election:
(1) being of Thai nationality, provided that a person who has acquired Thai
nationality by naturalization must hold the Thai nationality for not less than five years;
(2) being not less than eighteen years of age on the date of election; and
(3) having his or her name in the household registration in the constituency for
not less than ninety days up to the date of election.
An eligible voter residing outside the constituency where his or her name
appears in the household registration, or having his or her name in the household

registration in the constituency for a period of less than ninety days up to the date of
election, or having a residence outside the Kingdom of Thailand may request to register
for vote-casting outside the constituency at the venue and in accordance with the date
and time, procedure and conditions prescribed by the Organic Law on Election of
Members of the House of Representatives.
An eligible voter failing to exercise the right to vote without reasonable
notification as provided in the Organic Law on Election of Members of the House of
Representatives may be subject to restriction of certain rights specified by law.
Section 96 A person falling under any of the following prohibitions on the
date of election shall be disfranchised:
(1) being a Buddhist priest, novice, monk or clergy;
(2) being under suspension of the right to vote by judgment, regardless of
whether or not the case is final;
(3) being detained by a court warrant or by a lawful order;
(4) being of unsound mind or mental infirmity.
Section 97 A person having the following qualifications shall have the right
to be a candidate in an election of members of the House of Representatives:
(1) being of Thai nationality by birth;
(2) being not less than twenty five years of age on the date of election;
(3) being a member of only one political party for a consecutive period of not less
than ninety days up to the date of election, unless when the general election is a result of
the dissolution of the House of Representatives the period of ninety days shall be reduced
to thirty days;
(4) a candidate in an election on a constituency basis shall also have any of the
following qualifications:
(a) having his or her name in the household registration in the province
where he or she stands for election for a consecutive period of not less than five years up
to the date of application for election;
(b) being born in the province where he or she stands for the election;
(c) having studied in an educational institution situated in the province

where he or she stands for the election for a consecutive period of not less than five
academic years;
(d) having served in the official service or performing duties in a State
agency, or having had his or her name in the household registration in the province where
he or she stands for the election, as the case may be, for a consecutive period of not less
than five years.
Section 98 A person falling under any of the following prohibitions shall
have no right to be a candidate in an election of members of the House of Representatives:
(1) being addicted to narcotics;
(2) being bankrupt or having been dishonestly bankrupt;
(3) being the owner or a shareholder in newspaper business or any mass media;
(4) being disfranchised from exercising the right to vote pursuant to Section 96
(1), (2) or (4);
(5) being under temporary suspension of applying for candidacy in an election or
having been revoked of the right to apply for candidacy in an election;
(6) having been sentenced to imprisonment by a court and being detained by a
court warrant;
(7) having been imprisoned and having been discharged for a period of less than
ten years up to the date of election, except in case of an offence committed with
negligence or an offence of misdemeanor;
(8) having been expelled from the official service, a State agency or a State
enterprise on the ground of malfeasance or be regarded as corruption in the official
service;
(9) having been sentenced by a final judgment or order of a court to have his or
her assets vested in the State on the ground of unusual wealth, or having been sentenced
to imprisonment by a final judgment on the ground of committing an offence under the
law on prevention and suppression of corruption;
(10) having been convicted by a final judgment of a court for committing
wrongful conduct in official duties or justice affairs, or committing an offence under the
law on the wrongful acts of officials in State organizations or State agencies, or an offence
against property in bad faith according the Criminal Code, or an offence under the law on

fraudulent acts related to loans of the people, or an offence of being producer, importer or
exporter or trader under the narcotics law, an offence of being the owner or keeper of a
gambling house under the law on gambling, or an offence of money laundering under the
law on prevention and suppression of human trafficking or the law on prevention and
suppression of money laundering;
(11) having been convicted by a final judgment of a court for committing a
fraudulent act in an election;
(12) being a government official holding a permanent position or receiving
salary, except for a political official;
(13) being a member of a local council or being a local administrator;
(14) being a senator or having been a senator who has vacated office for a
period of less than two years;
(15) being an official or employee of a government agency, State agency or
State enterprise or being other State official;
(16) being a judge of the Constitutional Court or holding a position in an
independent organization;
(17) being under the prohibition of holding a political position;
(18) having vacated office based on the ground under Section 144 or Section 235
Paragraph Three.
Section 99 The term of the House of Representatives shall be four years
from the date of election.
During the term of the House of Representatives, merger of political parties
having members in the House of Representatives shall not be permitted.
Section 100 Membership of the House of Representatives shall commence on
the date of election.
Section 101 Membership of the House of Representatives shall terminate
upon:
(1) expiration of the term or dissolution of the House of Representatives;
(2) death;
(3) resignation;

(4) vacation of office according to Section 93;
(5) being disqualified pursuant to Section 97;
(6) falling under any prohibition in Section 98;
(7) acting in a manner of any prohibition under Section 184 or Section 185;
(8) resignation from his or her membership of a political party;
(9) being terminated of his or her membership of a political party by a
resolution decided with the votes of not less than three-fourths of the joint meeting of the
Executive Committee of the party and members of the House of Representatives affiliated
to such party. In this case, if that member of the House of Representatives does not
become a member of another political party within thirty days as from the date of the
resolution, his or her membership of the House of Representatives shall be deemed to
have terminated as from the day following the date on which such period of thirty days has
elapsed;
(10) the loss of his or her membership of a political party in the case where that
political party is dissolved by an order and he or she is unable to become a member of
another political party within sixty days as from the date of issuance of the order. In this
case, his or her membership shall be deemed to have terminated as from the day following
the date on which such period of sixty days has elapsed;
(11) vacation of office according to Section 144 or Section 235 Paragraph Three
(12) having been absent for more than one-fourth of the number of days in a
session the length of which is not less than one hundred and twenty days without
permission of the President of the House of Representatives;
(13) being sentenced to imprisonment by a final judgment of a court,
notwithstanding the suspension of punishment, unless such suspension is of an offence
committed with negligence, a misdemeanor or an offence of defamation;
Section 102 Upon the expiration of the term of the House of Representatives,
the King will issue a Royal Decree calling for a general election of members of the House of
Representatives to be conducted within forty five days as from the date of the expiration
of the term of the House of Representatives.

The date of election under Paragraph One shall be the same throughout the
Kingdom as published by the Election Commission in the Government Gazette.
Section 103 The King has the prerogative to dissolve the House of
Representatives for a new election of members of the House.
The dissolution of the House of Representatives shall be made by a Royal Decree
and shall be made only one time under the same circumstance.
Within five days from the date the Royal Decree under Paragraph One comes
into force, the Election Commission shall announce and publish the date of a general
election in the Government Gazette which must not be less than forty-five days and more
than sixty days from the date the Royal Decree enters into force, and such date shall be the
same throughout the Kingdom.
Section 104 Under the unavoidably necessary circumstance which results in
the inability to hold an election as announced by the Election Commission in Section 102 or
Section 103, the Election Commission may determine a new date of election, provided that
the election must be conducted within thirty days from the date such circumstance comes
to an end. For the purpose of counting the days pursuant to Section 95 (2) and Section 97
(2), the counting shall be up to the date of election as determined under Section 102 or
Section 103, as the case may be.
Section 105 When the office of a member of the House of Representatives
becomes vacant for any reason other than the expiration of the term or the dissolution of
the House of Representatives, the following actions shall be taken:
(1) In the case where the vacancy is that of the office of a member of the House
of Representatives elected on a constituency basis, a Royal Decree shall be issued for the
conduct of an election of a member of the House of Representatives to fill the vacancy,
unless the remaining term of the House of Representatives is less than one hundred and
eighty days. The provisions in Section 102 shall apply mutatis mutandis.
(2) In the case where the vacancy is that of the office of a member of the House
of Representatives elected on a party list basis, the President of the House of
Representatives shall, by publication in the Government Gazette within seven days as from
the date of vacancy, elevate the person placed in the next order in the list of that political

party to be a replacing member of the House of Representatives. Where there is no
remaining name in the list to be elevated to fill the vacancy, the party list members of the
House of Representatives shall be composed of the existing members.
Membership of the replacing member of the House of Representatives under (1)
shall commence from the date on which the election to fill the vacancy is held while
membership of the replacing member of the House of Representatives under (2) shall
commence from the day following the date of publication of the name of the replacing
member in the Government Gazette. The replacing member of the House of
Representatives shall hold office only for the remaining term of the House.
When the election to fill the vacancy is held, the calculation of proportional
votes of political parties in relation to the number of members of the House of
Representatives on a party list basis shall be in conformity with Section 94.
Section 106 After the Council of Ministers has assumed the administration of
the State affairs, the King will appoint as Leader of the Opposition in the House of
Representatives a member of the House who is the leader of the political party having the
majority of members in the House, and having no member holding a ministerial position,
the position of President of the House of Representatives or the position of Vice-President
of the House of Representatives.
In case of an equality of members of political parties in the House under
Paragraph One, it shall be decided by lot.
The President of the House of Representatives shall countersign the Royal
Command appointing the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Representatives.
The Leader of the Opposition in the House of Representatives shall vacate office
upon being disqualified as specified in Paragraph One or under the circumstance as
prescribed in Section 118 (1), (2), (3), or (4). In such case, the King will appoint a new
Leader of the Opposition in the House of Representatives to fill the vacancy.

Part 3
The Senate
____________

Section 107 The Senate shall consist of two hundred members selected
among themselves of persons who possess knowledge, expertise, experience, profession,
or common characteristic or interest, or who work or have worked in diverse fields of the
society. Division into groups shall be carried out in a manner that enables every eligible
person to be included in any group.
The division into groups, number of groups and qualifications of individuals in
each group, submission and acceptance of applications, rules and procedure for selection
among themselves, number of senators to be acquired from each group, listing of
reserves, elevation of persons in the reserve list to fill a vacancy, and any other necessary
measure to ensure honest and fair selection shall be in accordance with the Organic Law
on the Acquisition of Senators. For the benefit of honest and fair selection, a rule may be
established that applicants in each group shall not select any person from the same group
or that the recruitment of applicants shall be made by any other means therein the
applicants are engaged.
The procedure in Paragraph Two shall proceed from the district level, to the
provincial level, and to the national level so as to ensure that members of the Senate
represent all Thai people nationwide.
Where the number of members of the Senate under Paragraph One is not
fulfilled, irrespective of a vacancy or whatever reason other than the expiration of the term
of the Senate and there exists no remaining reserve, the Senate shall consist of the existing
members. Under the circumstance where the existing members of the Senate are in the
number less than one-half of the total number of members of the Senate and the
remaining term of the Senate is more than one year, the selection of replacing members of
the Senate shall be undertaken within sixty days as from the day the number of existing
members is less than one-half. In such case, the selected replacing members shall hold
office for the remaining term of the Senate.

Selection of members of the Senate shall be made by a Royal Decree, and within
five days from the day the Royal Decree comes into force the Election Commission shall
determine the date for commencing the selection process not later than thirty days from
the effective date of the Royal Decree. Such determination shall be published in the
Government Gazette and the provisions of Section 104 shall apply mutatis mutandis.
Section 108 Members of the Senate shall have the qualifications and shall not
fall under the prohibitions as described hereunder:
a. qualifications:
(1) being of Thai nationality by birth;
(2) being of not less than forty years of age on the date of application;
(3) having knowledge, expertise, and experience or working in the field
applied for not less than ten years, or having the characteristics as prescribed in the rules
and conditions provided in the Organic Law on Acquisition of Senators;
(4) being born and having the name in the household registration, or having
connections with the locality of application as prescribed in the rules and conditions as
provided in the Organic Law on Acquisition of Senators.
b. prohibitions:
(1) being disfranchised from application for candidacy in an election
pursuant to Section 98 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (15) (16) (17) or (18);
(2) being a government official;
(3) being or having been a member of the House of Representatives, unless
his or her membership has terminated for not less than five years up to the date of
application;
(4) being a member of a political party;
(5) holding or having held any position in a political party, unless he or she
has vacated office in the political party for not less than five years up to the date of
application;
(6) being or having been a Minister, unless he or she has vacated office for
not less than five years up to the date of application;
(7) being or having been a member of a local council or being or having been
a local administrator, unless he or she has vacated office for not less than five years up to

the date of application;
(8) being an ascendant, a spouse or a child of a member of the House of
Representatives, a member of the Senate, a political official, a member of local council or a
local administrator, a person concurrently standing for selection of a senator, or a position
holding a position in the Constitutional Court or a Constitutional organization;
(9) having been a member of the Senate under this Constitution.
Section 109 The term of the Senate shall be five years as from the date of the
announcement of the result of selection.
Membership of the Senate shall commence on the date of announcement of the
result by the Election Commission.
Upon expiration of the term of the Senate, its members shall continue to
perform their duties until new members are selected.
Section 110 Upon expiration of the term of the Senate, there shall be a new
selection of members of the Senate pursuant to Section 107 Paragraph Five.
Section 111 Membership of the Senate shall terminate upon:
(1) expiration of the term of the Senate;
(2) death;
(3) resignation;
(4) being disqualified or falling under any prohibition pursuant to Section 108;
(5) having been absent for more than one-fourth of the number of days in a
session the length of which is not less than one hundred and twenty days without
permission of the President of the Senate;
(6) being sentenced to imprisonment by a final judgment of a court,
notwithstanding the suspension of punishment, unless such suspension is of an offence
committed with negligence, a misdemeanor or an offence of defamation;
(7) acting in a manner violating Section 113 or in a manner of prohibitions
under Section 184 or Section 185;
(8) having vacated office based on the ground under Section 144 or Section 235
Paragraph Three.
Section 112 A person having been a member of the Senate, and such

membership has terminated for not more than two years, shall not be a minister or a
holder of a political position, except for being a member of a local council or a local
administrator.
Section 113 A member of the Senate shall not be sided with or yielded to the
mandate of any political party.

Part 4

Provisions Applicable to Both Houses
________________

Section 114 Members of the House of Representatives and the Senate
shall be representatives of the Thai people and free from any mandate or domination, and
shall honestly perform the duties for the common interests of the country and the well-
being of the people without conflict of interest.
Section 115 Before taking office, a member of the House of
Representatives and a senator shall make a solemn declaration at a sitting of the House of
which he or she is a member in the following words:
“I, (name of the declarer), do solemnly declare that I shall perform my duties in
accordance with the honest dictates of my conscience for the common interests of the
Thai people. I shall also uphold and observe the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand
in every respect.”
Section 116 The House of Representatives and the Senate shall each
have one President and one or two Vice-Presidents who are appointed by the King from
the members of such House in accordance with its resolution.
While being in office, the President and the Vice-Presidents of the House of
Representatives shall not simultaneously be members of the Executive Committee of any
political party or holding any position in a political party.
Section 117 The President and the Vice-Presidents of the House of
Representatives shall hold office until the expiration of the term or the dissolution of the
House.

The President and the Vice-Presidents of the Senate shall hold office until
expiration of the term, except during the period as specified in Section 109 Paragraph
Three that the President and the Vice-Presidents of the Senate shall continue to hold
office to perform the duties.
Section 118 The President and the Vice-Presidents of the House of
Representatives and the President and the Vice-Presidents of the Senate shall vacate
office before the expiration of the term as provided in Section 117 upon:
(1) loss of membership of the House of which he is a member;
(2) resignation;
(3) holding a position of Prime Minister, Minister or other political official;
(4) being sentenced to imprisonment by a judgment of a court,
notwithstanding the case is not final or there is a suspension of punishment, unless such
case or suspension is of an offence committed with negligence, a misdemeanor or an
offence of defamation.
Section 119 The President of the House of Representatives and the
President of the Senate shall have the duties and powers to carry out the business of
each House in accordance with its rules of procedure. The Vice-presidents shall have the
duties and powers as entrusted by the President and act on behalf of the President when
the President is not present or unable to perform his or her duties.
The President of the House of Representatives, the President of the Senate,
and the persons who act on behalf of the President shall be impartial in the performance
of duties.
When the President and the Vice-Presidents of the House of Representatives
or the President and the Vice-Presidents of the Senate are not present at any sitting, the
members of each House shall elect one among themselves to preside over such sitting.
Section 120 At a sitting of the House of Representatives and the Senate,
the presence of not less than one-half of the total number of the existing members of
each House is required to constitute a quorum, except that in the case of considering the
agenda on interpellation, the House of Representatives or the Senate may otherwise

prescribe a quorum in the rules of procedure.
A resolution on any issue shall be made by a majority of votes, unless it is
otherwise provided in the Constitution.
In casting a vote, each member shall have one vote. In case of an equality of
votes, the presiding member shall have an additional vote as a casting vote.
Minutes of a sitting and record of the voting of each member shall be disclosed
to the general public, except for the case of closed door sitting or of the voting by secret
ballot.
The casting of votes to elect or give approval to a person for holding office
shall be secret, unless otherwise provided in the Constitution.
Section 121 The National Assembly shall, within fifteen days as from the
announcement date of the result of the general election of members of the House of
Representatives, be summoned for the first sitting.
Each year, the National Assembly shall convene two ordinary sessions for a
period of one hundred and twenty days for each session but the King may graciously
prolong it.
An ordinary session may be prorogued before the end of one hundred and
twenty days only with the approval of the National Assembly.
The day on which the first sitting under Paragraph One is held shall be
considered as the commencement date of the 1st general ordinary session while the
commencement date of the 2nd general ordinary session shall be as determined by the
House of Representatives. However in the case where the first sitting under Paragraph
One has less time up to the end of a calendar year to convene the 2nd general ordinary
session, it may be omitted in that year.
Section 122 The King convokes the National Assembly, opens and
prorogues its session.
The King may be present to perform the opening ceremony of the general
ordinary session or may graciously command the Heir to the Throne who is sui juris or

any person to perform the ceremony as His Representative.
When it is necessary for the interests of the State, the King may convoke an
extraordinary session of the National Assembly.
Subject to Section 123 and Section 126, the convocation, the prolongation of
session and the prorogation of the National Assembly shall be made by a Royal Decree.
Section 123 Members of both Houses or members of the House of
Representatives of not less than one-third of the total number of the existing members
of both Houses shall have the right to lodge their petition with the President of the
National Assembly to present to the King for the issuance of a Royal Command convoking
an extraordinary session of the National Assembly.
The President of the National Assembly shall thereafter present the petition to
the King and countersign the Royal Command.
Section 124 At a sitting of the House of Representatives, the Senate, or
at a joint sitting of the National Assembly, words expressed in giving statements of fact
or opinions or in casting the vote by any member are absolutely privileged. No charge or
action in any manner whatsoever shall be brought against such member.
The privilege under Paragraph One shall not extend to a member who
expresses words at a sitting which is broadcast through radio or television or any other
means if such words appear out of the precinct of the National Assembly and the
expression of such words constitutes a criminal offence or a wrongful act against any
other person, who is not a Minister or member of that House.
In the case of Paragraph Two, if the words expressed by the member cause
damage to another person who is not a Minister or member of that House, the President
of that House shall cause explanations to be published as requested by that person in
accordance with the procedure and within such period of time as prescribed in the rules
of procedure of that House, without prejudice to the right of such person to bring the
case before the Court.
The privilege provided in this Section shall extend to printers and publishers of
the minutes of sittings in accordance with the rules of procedure of the House of

Representatives, the Senate or the National Assembly, as the case may be, and to
persons permitted by the presiding member to give statements of fact or opinions at
such sitting as well as to persons who broadcasts the sitting through radio or television
or any other means with the permission of the President of such House mutatis
mutandis.
Section 125 No member of the House of Representatives or a senator
shall, during a session, be arrested, detained or summoned by a warrant for inquiry as
the alleged offender in a criminal case, unless permission of the House of which he or she
is a member is obtained or he or she is arrested in flagrante delicto.
In the case where a member of the House of Representatives or a senator has
been arrested in flagrante delicto, it shall be forthwith reported to the President of the
House of which he or she is a member and, for the purpose of the sitting of the House,
such President may order the release of the person so arrested.
If a member of the House of Representatives or a senator is detained during
the inquiry or the trial before the beginning of a session, when the session begins, the
inquiry official or the Court, as the case may be, must order his or her release as soon as
the President of the House of which he or she is a member has so requested. In such
case, the Court may or may not order a placement of bail or bail with securities.
In the case where a criminal charge is brought against a member of the House
of Representatives or a senator, irrespective of whether the House is in session or not,
the Court may try the case during a session, provided that the trial of the Court shall not
hinder such member from attending the sitting of the House.
Section 126 During the absence of the House of Representatives, either
due to the expiration of the term or the dissolution of the House of Representatives, or
due to any reason, the Senate shall not hold its sitting except in the following cases:
(1) a sitting at which the Senate shall undertake actions pursuant to Section
17, Section 19, Section 20, Section 21 or Section 177;
(2) a sitting at which the Senate shall consider a person for holding any office
according to the provisions of the Constitution.

Where there is a case under Paragraph One, the Senate shall conduct a sitting
whereby the President of the Senate shall inform the King for issuance of a Royal
Command to convoke an extraordinary session of the National Assembly and the
President of the Senate shall countersign the Royal Command.
Under the circumstance in (1), the Senate shall perform the duties of the
National Assembly, except that the votes of not less than two-thirds of the total number
of the existing members of the Senate are required for the consent under Section 177.
Section 127 A sitting of the House of Representatives and of the Senate
and a joint sitting of the National Assembly shall be in public under the conditions
stipulated in the rules of procedure of each House. Nevertheless, a sitting in camera shall
be held in secret at the request of the Council of Ministers or members of not less than
one-fourth of the total number of the existing members of each House or of both
Houses, as the case may be.
Section 128 The House of Representatives and the Senate shall have the
power to formulate the rules of procedure governing election and performance of duties
of the President, the Vice-Presidents, matters or activities within the scope of powers
and duties of each standing committee, performance and quorum of committees,
sittings, submission and consideration of organic law bills and bills, submission of
motions, consultation, debate, the passing of a resolution, the recording and disclosure
of the passing of a resolution, interpellation, general debate, observation of the rules and
order, and other related affairs, and shall have the power to formulate the codes of
ethics of members and committee members, and other matters for the execution of the
Constitution.
The provision in the rules of procedure under Paragraph One related to the
appointment of an ad hoc committee to consider a bill, the substance thereof is decided
by the President of the House of Representatives to be concerned with children, youth,
women, elderly or persons with disabilities or handicapped, shall require that not less
than one-third of the total number of members of the committee must be persons of
such any category or representatives of non-governmental organizations working directly
with persons of such category. In respect of the provision related to the consideration of

a bill introduced by eligible voters, it shall require that not less than one-third of the total
number of members of an ad hoc committee must be representatives of the voters such
bill has been introduced thereby.
Section 129 The House of Representatives and the Senate shall have the
power to select and appoint members of each House to constitute a standing committee
and shall have the power to select and appoint persons, being or not being its members,
to constitute an ad hoc committee or a joint committee in accordance with Section 137
in order to perform any act, inquire into fact or study any matter and report its findings
to the House.
The performance of an act, the inquiry into fact or the study under Paragraph
One shall be within the scope of duties and powers of such House, and the duties and
powers of the committee as specified in the resolution of appointment or for the
performance of the committee shall be without duplication. In the case where the
performance of any act, the inquiry into fact or the study in any matter of the
committees are inter-related, the President of the each House shall ensure that all
concerned committees jointly undertake the activity so related.
The committee shall not authorize or entrust any person or any group of
persons to inquire into fact on its behalf.
The committee under Paragraph One shall have the power to demand
documents from any person or summon any person to give statements of fact or
opinions on the act being performed or the matter under its inquiry or study. Such power
shall not apply to a judge or a tribunal performing duties or exercising powers in the trial
of a case or to the personnel management of each Court, and shall not apply to a
position holder in a Constitutional Organization in regard to the execution of direct
duties and powers of each Organization according to the Constitution or respective
organic law, as the case may be.
The Minister in charge of the matter under inquiry or study by a committee
shall have the duty to instruct government officials under affiliation or supervision to
provide statements of fact, submit documents or give opinions as summoned by the
committee.

The House of Representatives and the Senate shall disclose to the public
minutes of the meeting, operational report, fact-finding report or report of the study, as
the case may be, of the committee, unless there is a resolution of the House of
Representatives or the Senate, as the case may be, prohibiting such disclosure.
The privileges provided in Section 124 shall also extend to the persons
performing their duties and observing summon under this Section.
The number of members of a standing committee appointed solely from
members of the House of Representatives shall be in proportion to or in close proportion
to the number of members of the House of Representatives of each political party in the
House of Representatives.
In the absence of the rules of procedure of the House of Representatives
under Section 128, the President of the House of Representatives shall determine the
proportion under Paragraph Eight.
Section 130 The following organic laws shall be enacted:
(1) the Organic Act on Election of Members of the House of Representatives;
(2) the Organic Act on Acquisition of Members of the Senate;
(3) the Organic Act on the Election Commission;
(4) theOrganic Act on Political Parties;
(5) the Organic Act on the Ombudsman;
(6) the Organic Act on Prevention and Suppression of corruption;
(7) the Organic Act on the State Audit;
(8) the Organic Acton Procedure of the Constitutional Court;
(9) the Organic Act on Criminal Procedure for Persons Holding political
{ositions;
(10) the Organic Act on the National Human Rights Commission.
Section 131 An organic bill shall be introduced only by:
(1) the Council of Ministers with the advice of the Supreme Court, the
Constitutional Court, or a concerned Constitutional Organization;
(2) members of the House of Representatives in the number of not less than

one-tenth of the total number of existing members of the House.
Section 132 Other than what provided hereunder, an organic bill shall
be subject to the same procedure as that of an act:
(1) an organic law bill shall be submitted to the National Assembly thereof a
joint sitting shall be convened to complete its consideration within one hundred and
eighty days. Approval of the bill shall be made, in the third reading, by the votes of more
than one-half of the total number of the existing members of the National Assembly. In
the case where the joint sitting of the National Assembly has not completed the
consideration within the period as specified, it shall be deemed that the National
Assembly has approved the organic bill in accordance with Section 131;
(2) within fifteen days from the date of approval by the National Assembly of
the organic bill, the National Assembly shall forward the organic bill to the Supreme
Court, the Constitutional Court, or a concerned Constitutional Organization for
comments. In the case where the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court, or the
concerned Constitutional Organization has not expressed its disagreement within ten
days from the date of receipt of the bill, the National Assembly shall proceed further;
(3) where the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court, or the concerned
Constitutional Organization is of the opinion that any provision of the organic bill as
approved by the National Assembly is contrary to or inconsistent with the Constitution,
or in a manner to incapacitate proper performance of duties in accordance with the
Constitution, such opinion shall be presented to the National Assembly for consideration
by a joint sitting thereof within thirty days from the date of receipt of the opinion. In this
case, the National Assembly shall have the power to amend the bill according to the
recommendation of the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court, or the concerned
Constitutional Organization as deemed appropriate, and when the amendment has been
made the National Assembly shall proceed further.
Section 133 A bill shall be first submitted to the House of
Representatives and only by:
(1) the Council of Ministers;
(2) members of the House of Representatives of not less than twenty in

number;

(3) eligible voters of not less than ten thousands in number jointly introducing
a bill pursuant to Chapter III, regarding rights and liberties of the Thai people, or Chapter
V, regarding the duties of the State, as provided in the law on introduction of bills;
In the case that a bill introduced under (2) and (3) is a money-related bill, it
shall be introduced only with the endorsement of the Prime Minister.
Section 134 A money-related bill shall mean a bill with provisions
dealing with any of the following matters:
(1) the imposition, repeal, reduction, alteration, modification, remission, or
regulation of taxes or duties;
(2) the allocation, receipt, custody, payment of the State funds, or transfer of
expenditure estimates of the State;
(3) the raising of loans, or guarantee or redemption of loans, or any action
binding properties of the State; and
(4) currency.
In case of doubt as to whether a bill is a money-related bill, it shall be the
power of a joint sitting of the President of the House of Representatives and Presidents
of all its standing committees to make a decision thereon.
The President of the House of Representatives shall hold a joint sitting to
consider the case under Paragraph Two within fifteen days as from the date such case
occurs.
The resolution of the joint sitting under Paragraph Two shall be decided by a
majority of votes. In case of an equality of votes, the President of the House of
Representatives shall have an additional vote as a casting vote.
Section 135 For any bill introduced by members of the House of
Representatives or eligible voters which, at the stage of the adoption of its principle, was
not a money-related bill but was then amended by the House of Representatives and, in
the opinion of the President of the House or due to the admonition of members of the
House that such amendment has rendered it to exhibit the characteristic of a money-
related bill, the President of the House of Representatives shall suspend the

consideration of such bill and proceed pursuant to Section 134 Paragraph Two,
Paragraph Three and Paragraph Four.
If the joint sitting under Paragraph One decides that the amendment has
resulted in such bill exhibiting the characteristic of a money-related bill, the President of
the House of Representatives shall refer it to the Prime Minister for endorsement. In the
case where the Prime Minister does not endorse it, the House of Representative shall
amend it so as to prevent it from being a money-related bill.
Section 136 When the House of Representatives has considered a bill
and resolved to approve it, the House of Representatives shall submit such bill to the
Senate thereby the consideration of such bill must be completed within sixty days. If the
bill is a money-related bill, the consideration thereof must be completed within thirty
days, unless the Senate, as a special case, resolves to extend the period for not more
than thirty days. The said period shall mean the period during a session and shall be
counted as from the date such bill reaches the Senate.
The period referred to in Paragraph One shall not include the period during
which the bill is under the consideration of the Constitutional Court under Section 139.
In case the Senate has not completed the consideration of the bill within the
period referred to in Paragraph One, it shall be deemed that the Senate has approved it.
In the case where the House of Representatives submits a money-related bill
to the Senate, the President of the House of Representatives shall also notify the Senate.
Such notification shall be deemed final. In the event that the President of the House of
Representatives does not notify, such bill shall not be deemed as a money-related bill.
Section 137 After the Senate has completed the consideration of a bill;
(1) if it agrees with the House of Representatives, further proceedings under
Section 81 shall be undertaken;
(2) if it disagrees with the House of Representatives, such bill shall be withheld
and returned to the House of Representatives;
(3) if there is an amendment, the amended bill shall be returned to the House
of Representatives. If the House of Representatives approves such amendment, further

proceedings under Section 81 shall be taken. In other cases, each House shall appoint
persons, being or not being its members, in such an equal number as may be determined
by the House of Representatives, to constitute a joint committee for considering the bill
and the joint committee shall prepare a report thereon and submit the bill which it has
already considered to both Houses. If both Houses approve the bill already considered by
the joint committee, further proceedings under Section 81 shall be taken. If either House
disapproves it, regardless of whether or not the other House has considered it, the bill
shall be withheld.
At a meeting of the joint committee, the presence of the members of the joint
committee, appointed by both Houses, of not less than one-half of the total number of
its existing members is required to constitute a quorum and the provisions of Section 157
shall apply mutatis mutandis.
If the Senate does not return the bill to the House of Representatives within
the period specified under Section 136, it shall be deemed that the Senate has approved
such bill and further proceeding under Section 81 shall be taken.
Section 138 A bill withheld under Section 137 may be reconsidered by
the House of Representatives only after the lapse of one hundred and eighty days as
from:
(1) the date the bill is returned to the House of Representatives by the Senate
in case of withholding under Section 137 (2);
(2) the date either House disapproves it in case of withholding under
Section137 (3)
In such cases under Paragraph One, if the House of Representatives resolves to
reaffirm the original bill considered by the House or the bill considered by the joint
committee by the votes of more than one-half of the total number of the existing
members of the House of Representatives, such bill shall be deemed to have been
approved by the National Assembly and further proceedings under Section 81 shall be
taken.
Subject to Section 143 Paragraph Four, the period of one hundred and eighty

days under Paragraph One shall be reduced to ten days in the case where the bill
withheld is a money-related bill.
Section 139 While a bill is being withheld pursuant to Section 137, the
Council of Ministers or members of the House of Representatives may not introduce a
bill having the same or similar principle as that of the bill so withheld.
In the case where the House of Representatives or the Senate is of the opinion
that the bill so introduced or referred to for consideration has the same or similar
principle as that of the bill being withheld, the President of the House of Representatives
or the President of the Senate shall forward the said bill to the Constitutional Court for
decision. If the Constitutional Court decides that it is a bill having the same or similar
principle as that of the bill so withheld, such bill shall lapse.
Section 140 The payment of State funds shall be made specifically when
it has been authorized by the law on appropriations, the law on budgetary procedure or
the law on transfer of appropriations, the law on treasury balance, or the law on fiscal
discipline, except that it may be prepaid in the case of urgent necessity under the rules
and procedure provided by law. In such case, the expenditure estimates for
reimbursement must be set aside in the Transfer of Appropriations Act or the
Supplementary Appropriations Act, or the Annual Appropriations Act for the following
fiscal year.
Section 141 The expenditure estimates of the State shall be made in the
form of an Act. If the Annual Appropriations Act for the following fiscal year is not
enacted in time, the law on annual appropriations for the preceding fiscal year shall
apply pro tempore.
The State shall allocate budgets adequate for the independent administration
of the National Assembly, the Courts, the Constitutional Organizations, and the State
Attorney Organization, according to the rules prescribed in the law on State fiscal
discipline. In the case where it deems that the allocated budget may be inadequate for
its administration, the National Assembly, the Courts, the Constitutional Organizations,
or the State Attorney Organization may directly submit a motion to the concerned
committee.

Section 142 The introduction of an annual appropriations bill shall also
demonstrate sources of income and revenue estimates, expected outcomes or benefits
from the spending of State funds, and consistency with the national strategy and various
development plans, according to the rules prescribed in the law on State fiscal discipline.
Section 143 The House of Representatives shall complete the
consideration of an annual appropriations bill, a supplementary appropriations bill and a
transfer of appropriations bill within one hundred and fifty days as from the date the bills
reach the House of Representatives.
If the House of Representatives has not completed the consideration of the
bills within the period referred to in Paragraph One, such bills shall be deemed to have
been approved by the House of Representatives and shall be submitted to the Senate for
consideration.
In the consideration by the Senate, the Senate shall approve or disapprove the
bills, without any amendment, within twenty days as from the date the bills reach the
Senate. Upon the lapse of such period, the bills shall be deemed to have been approved
by the Senate. In such case and in the case where the Senate approves the bills, further
proceedings under Section 81 shall be taken.
If the Senate disapproves the bills, the provisions of Section 138 Paragraph
Two shall apply mutatis mutandis and the House of Representatives shall immediately
reconsider the bills.
The periods under Paragraph One and Paragraph Three respectively shall not
include the period of consideration by the Constitutional Court pursuant to Section 144
Paragraph Three.
Section 144 In the consideration of the annual appropriations bill, the
supplementary appropriations bill, and the transfer of appropriations bill, a member of
the House of Representatives shall not submit a motion altering or amending any item or
amount in the bills, but may submit a motion reducing or abridging the expenditures
which are not expenditures according to any of the following obligations:
(1) money for payment of the principal of a loan;

(2) interest on a loan;
(3) money payable in accordance with the law.
In the consideration by the House of Representatives, the Senate or a
committee, any proposal, submission of a motion or commission of an act, which results
in direct or indirect involvement in the use of the appropriations by members of the
House of Representatives, senators or members of the committee, shall not be
permitted.
In the case where members of the House of Representatives or senators of not
less than one-tenth of the total number of the existing members of each House are of
the opinion that there has been a violation of the provisions under Paragraph Two, they
shall refer it to the Constitutional Court for decision thereupon the Constitutional Court
shall decide within fifteen days as from the date of receipt of such opinion. In the event
that the Constitutional Court decides that the violation of the provisions under Paragraph
Two has occurred, such proposal, submission of the motion, or commission of the act
shall be ineffective. If the violation has been committed by a member of the House of
Representatives or a senator, the membership of such person shall terminate from the
date of the decision issued by the Constitutional Court and his or her right to apply for
candidacy in an election shall be revoked. In the case where the Council of Ministers has
committed such violation or approved its commission or been aware of the violation but
fails to order its suspension, the Council of Minister shall vacate office en masse from the
date of the decision issued by the Constitutional Court and the right to apply for
candidacy in an election of each vacated Minister shall be revoked, unless his or her
absence at the passing of the concerned resolution has been proved, and the person
committing the violation shall be liable for the reimbursement of such amount of money
with interest.
Any State official developing a project or approving or allocating budget with
the knowledge of an act violating the provisions under Paragraph One or Paragraph Two
shall be exempted from liability if such person has a written record of disagreement or
has informed the National Counter Corruption Commission in writing.
The reimbursement under Paragraph Three or Paragraph Four shall be made

within twenty years from the date of such budget allocation.
Upon being informed under Paragraph Four, the National Counter Corruption
Commission shall conduct an investigation without delay and in secrecy. In the event
where the Commission is of the opinion that it is a prima facie case, it shall submit its
opinion to the Constitutional Court for further proceedings according to Paragraph Three
and, irrespective of whatever circumstance, the National Counter Corruption
Commission and the Constitution or any person shall not disclose information about the
informant.
Section 145 Upon approval of a bill by the National Assembly, the Prime
Minister shall wait for five days as from the date of receipt of that bill from the National
Assembly and, in case of no act required pursuant to Section 148, the Prime Minister
shall present it to the King within twenty days after the lapse of such waiting period.
Section 146 In the event where the King refuses His assent to a bill and
returns it to the National Assembly or does not return it within ninety days, the National
Assembly shall deliberate such bill. If the National Assembly resolves to reaffirm the bill
with the votes of not less than two-thirds of the total number of existing members of
both Houses, the Prime Minister shall again present such bill to the King for signature. If
the King does not sign and return the bill within thirty days, the Prime Minister shall
cause the bill to be published in the Government Gazette as if it were an Act signed by
the King.
Section 147 In case of the expiration of the term of the House of
Representatives or the dissolution of the House of Representatives, the draft
Constitution Amendment or the bill pending approval of the National Assembly, or
having been approved by the National Assembly but the King has refused His assent
thereto or has not returned it within ninety days, such draft or bill shall lapse.
Concerning all draft Constitution Amendments or bills pending approval of the
National Assembly and have lapsed under Paragraph One, if the Council of Ministers
newly appointed after the general election requests to the National Assembly that the
National Assembly, the House of Representatives or the Senate, as the case may be,
continue its consideration. If the National Assembly approves such request, the National

Assembly, the House of Representatives or the Senate, as the case may be, shall proceed;
provided that the Council of Ministers must request within sixty days as from the date
convoking the first sitting of the National Assembly following the general election.
Section 148 Before the Prime Minister presents any bill to the King for
His signature pursuant to Section 81:
(1) if members of the House of Representatives, senators or members of both
Houses of not less than one-tenth of the total number of the existing members of both
Houses are of the opinion that the provisions of such bill are contrary to or inconsistent
with the Constitution, or the bill is enacted contrary to the provisions of the Constitution,
they shall submit the opinion to the President of the House of Representatives, the
President of the Senate or the President of the National Assembly, as the case may be,
and the President of the House such opinion has been submitted thereto shall refer it to
the Constitutional Court for decision and, without delay, inform the Prime Minister
thereof;
(2) if the Prime Minister is of the opinion that the provisions of the bill are
contrary to or inconsistent with the Constitution, or the bill is enacted contrary to the
provisions of the Constitution, the Prime Minister shall refer such opinion to the
Constitutional Court for decision and, without delay, inform the President of the House
of Representatives and the President of the Senate thereof.
During the consideration of the Constitutional Court, the Prime Minister shall
not present such bill to the King for His signature.
If the Constitutional Court decides that the provisions of the bill are contrary
to or inconsistent with the Constitution, or the bill is enacted contrary to the provisions
of the Constitution, and such provisions of the bill form the essential elements thereof,
the bill shall lapse.
If the Constitutional Court decides that the provisions of the bill are contrary
to or inconsistent with the Constitution otherwise than in the case specified in Paragraph
Three, such contradictory or inconsistent provisions shall lapse and the Prime Minister
shall proceed further in accordance with Section 81.

Section 149 The provisions in Section 148 shall apply mutatis mutandis
to draft rules of procedure of the House of Representatives, draft rules of procedure of
the Senate, and draft rules of procedure of the National Assembly which have been
approved by the House of Representatives, the Senate, or the National Assembly, as the
case may be, but remain unpublished in the Government Gazette.
Section 150 Every member of the House of Representatives or senator
shall have the right to conduct an interpellation of a Minister, in writing or verbally, on
any matter within the scope of his or her authority, in accordance with the rules of
procedure of such House which must to the least provide for verbal interpellation
without notice.
A Minister shall have the right to refuse to answer if the Council of Ministers is
of the opinion that the matter should not yet be disclosed on the ground of safety or vital
interest of the State.
Section 151 Members of the House of Representatives of not less than
one-fifth of the total number of the existing members of the House shall have the right to
submit a motion for a general debate for the purpose of passing a vote of no-confidence
in an individual Minister or the Council of Ministers.
When the motion has been submitted according to Paragraph One, the
dissolution of the House of Representatives shall not be permitted, except that the
motion is withdrawn or the resolution is passed without being supported by the vote in
accordance with Paragraph Four.
If the general debate is concluded with a resolution not to pass over the
agenda of the general debate, the House of Representatives shall pass a vote of
confidence or no-confidence. Voting in such case shall not take place on the date of the
conclusion of the debate.
The vote of no-confidence must be passed by more than one-half of the total
number of the existing members of the House of Representatives.
Any Minister has vacated the original office but remains to hold another
ministerial position after the date of submission of the motion by members of the House

of Representatives under Paragraph One, or has vacated the original office not more
than ninety days before the date of submission of the motion by members of the House
of Representatives under Paragraph One but remains to hold another ministerial
position, such Minister shall continue to be subject to a general debate for the purpose
of passing a vote of no-confidence.
Section 152 Members of the House of Representatives of not less than
one-tenth of the total number of the existing members of the House of Representatives
shall have the right to submit a motion for a general debate for the purpose of inquiring
into fact or presenting problems to the Council of Ministers without a resolution to be
passed.
Section 153 Senators of not less than one-third of the total number of
the existing members of the Senate shall have the right to submit a motion for a general
debate in the Senate for the purpose of requesting the Council of Ministers to give
statements of fact or explain important problems in connection with the administration
of State affairs without a resolution to be passed.
Section 154 The submission of the motion for the general debate under
Section 151, Section 152 or Section 153, as the case may be, shall be permitted once in a
year.
The provision in Paragraph One shall not be applied to the general debate
provided in Section 151 which has been concluded with the resolution to pass over the
agenda of such debate.
Section 155 In the case where there is an important problem in respect
of the safety and security or the economy of the country, and it is deemed expedient to
convene a joint consultation between the National Assembly and the Council of
Ministers, the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Representatives may give a
notice to the President of the National Assembly requesting that a general debate be
held at a joint sitting of the National Assembly. In such case, the President of the
National Assembly shall convene a sitting within fifteen days from the date of receipt of
the notice, and no resolution shall be passed by the National Assembly on the issue put
in the debate.

The sitting under Paragraph One shall be secret and the Council of Ministers
has the duty to attend the sitting.

Part 5
Joint Sittings of the National Assembly
_______________

Section 156 The National Assembly shall hold a joint sitting in the
following cases:
(1) the approval of the appointment of the Regent under Section 17;
(2) the making of a solemn declaration by the Regent before the National
Assembly under Section 19;
(3) the acknowledgment of an amendment of the Palace Law on Succession,
B.E. 2467, under Section 20;
(4) the acknowledgment or approval of the succession to the Throne under
Section 21;
(5) the approval of the prorogation of a session under Section 121;
(6) the opening of the session of the National Assembly under Section 122;
(7) the consideration of an organic bill under Section 132;
(8) the deliberation of an organic bill or a new bill under Section 146;
(9) the approval under Section 147;
(10) the general debate under Section 155 and Section 165;
(11) the making of the rules of procedure of the National Assembly under
Section 157;
(12) the announcement of policies under Section 162;
(13) the approval of the declaration of war under Section 177;
(14) the hearing of explanation and the approval of a treaty under Section 178;
(15) the amendment of the Constitution under Section 256;
(16) other cases as provided in the Constitution.

Section 157 At a joint sitting of the National Assembly, the rules of
procedure of the National Assembly shall apply. While the rules of procedure of the
National Assembly are not yet in place, the rules of procedure of the House of
Representatives shall apply mutatis mutandis.
The provisions applicable to both Houses shall apply mutatis mutandis to the
joint sitting of the National Assembly, except that, for the appointment of a committee,
the number of committee members appointed from the members of each House shall be
in proportion to or in close proportion to the number of members of each House.

CHAPTER VIII

Council of Ministers

_________________

Section 158 The King appoints the Prime Minister and not more than
thirty-five other Ministers to constitute the Council of Ministers having the duties to carry
out the administration of the State affairs in accordance to the principle of collective
responsibility
The Prime Minister must be appointed from the person approved by the House of
Representatives pursuant to Section 159.
The President of the House of Representatives shall countersign the Royal
Command appointing the Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister shall not hold office for a total period of more than eight
years, notwithstanding consecutively or not, and such period shall not count the period he
or she continues to perform the duties after vacating office.
Section 159 The House of Representatives shall complete its consideration and
approval of a person suitable to be appointed as Prime Minister as selected from the
nominees having the qualifications and not falling under the prohibitions under Section 160
including who appear in the lists presented according to Section 88 specifically by the
political parties having members in the House of Representatives not less than five percent
of the total number of the existing members of the House.
The nomination of a person under Paragraph One shall be endorsed by members
of the House of Representatives of not less than one-tenth of the total number of the
existing members of the House.
The resolution of the House of Representatives approving the appointment of a
person as Prime Minister shall be passed by the open votes of more than one-half of the
total number of the existing members of the House.
Section 160 A Minister shall:

(1) be of Thai nationality by birth;
(2) be not less than thirty five years of age;
(3) have graduated with not lower than a Bachelor Degree or its equivalent;
(4) be of apparent honesty;
(5) not possess behavior seriously violating or failing to comply with the ethical

standard;

(6) not be under any of the prohibitions in Section 98;
(7) not be sentenced to imprisonment by a judgment of a court, notwithstanding
the case is not final or there is a suspension of punishment, unless it is on account of an
offence committed with negligence, a misdemeanor or an offence of defamation;
(8) not vacate office, on the ground of committing an act prohibited under Section
186 or Section 187, for less than two years up to the date of appointment.
Section 161 Before taking office, a Minister shall make a solemn declaration
before the King in the following words:
“I, (name of the declarer), do solemnly declare that I will be loyal to His Majesty
the King and will faithfully perform my duties in the interests of the country and of the
people. I will also uphold and observe the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand in every
respect.”
In the case where the King has permitted the Council of Ministers to perform
duties prior to the making of a solemn declaration, the Council of Ministers shall proceed
according to Section 162 Paragraph Two. In such case, the Council of Ministers under
Section 168 (1) shall vacate office from the date of His permission.
Section 162 The Council of Ministers which will assume the administration
of the State affairs shall, within fifteen days as from the date it takes office, state its policies
to the National Assembly in compliance with the Duties of the State, Directive Policies of the
State and the National Strategy, and shall demonstrate the sources of revenue for spending
on the implementation thereof, with no passing of a resolution on the vote of confidence.
Prior to the statement of policies to the National Assembly under Paragraph One,
if there occurs a matter of importance and exigency which, once left delayed, will affect

substantial benefits of the State, the Council of Ministers which has taken office may, for the
time being, carry out an act in so far as it is necessary.
Section 163 A Minister shall have the right to attend and give statements
of fact or opinions at a sitting of the House with no right to vote, unless it is a voting in the
House of Representatives thereof such Minister is a member, and the privilege provided in
Section 124 shall apply mutatis mutandis.
Section 164 The Council of Ministers shall carry out the administration of
the State affairs in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, laws and the policies
stated to the National Assembly, and shall observe the following rules:
(1) performing the duties and exercise the powers with honesty, good faith,
sacrifice, transparency, and undertaking affairs with prudence and caution in the best
interests of the country and general public;
(2) strictly maintaining discipline in the affairs relating to the State funds
according to the law on fiscal discipline of the State;
(3) adhering to and observing the principle of good governance;
(4) enhancing all sections of the society to together live in a just, peaceful and
harmonious manner.
A Minister shall be responsible to the House of Representatives for the matters
under own duties and powers, and shall be responsible collectively to the National Assembly
for the determination and the implementation of the policies of the Council of Ministers.
Section 165 In the case where there is an important problem in the
administration of State affairs in regard to which the Council of Ministers deems it advisable
to take opinions of members of the House of Representatives and senators, the Prime
Minister may give a notice to the President of the National Assembly requesting that a
general debate be held at a joint sitting of the National Assembly. In such case, no
resolution shall be passed by the National Assembly on the issue put in the debate.
Section 166 In case of a reasonable cause, the Council of Ministers may
request to have a public referendum conducted in respect of a matter which is not contrary

to or inconsistent with the Constitution, or a matter which is not concerned with a person or
a group of persons, as provided by law.
Section 162 Ministers shall vacate office en masse upon:
(1) the termination of the ministerial status of the Prime Minister under Section
170;
(2) the expiration of the term or the dissolution of the House of Representatives;
(3) the resignation of the Council of Ministers;
(4) the vacation of office based on the grounds in Section 144
Upon the vacation of office of the Council of Ministers according to (1), (3) or (4),
a new Council of Ministers shall be appointed pursuant to Section 158 and Section 159.
Section 168 The vacating Council of Ministers shall remain in office to
continue the duties in compliance with the following conditions:
(1) in case of vacation of office under Section 167 (1), (2) or (3), the Council of
Ministers shall remain in office to continue the duties until the newly appointed Council of
Ministers takes office, except in the case where the Prime Minister vacates office according
to Section 167 (1) on the ground of being disqualified or falling under any of the prohibitions
in Section 98 or Section 160 (4) or (5), the Prime Minister shall not remain in office to
continue the duties.
(2) in case of vacation of office under Section 167 (4), the vacating Council of
Ministers shall not remain in office to continue the duties.
In the event where the Council of Ministers shall not remain in office to continue
the duties as provided in (2), or the Council of Ministers having remained to continue the
duties resigns and Section 158 and Section 159 may not apply, due to any reason
whatsoever, or the proceedings under Section 158 and Section 159 have not completed, the
Permanent Secretaries shall, for the time being, act in place of respective Ministers
specifically to the extent of necessity and the Permanent Secretaries shall elect one among
themselves to act in place of the Prime Minister.
Section 169 In the case where the Council of Ministers vacating office
according to Section 167 (2) shall remain in office to continue the duties according to

Section 168, the Council of Ministers shall perform the duties in compliance with the
following conditions:
(1) refraining from committing an act which results in the approval of a task or
project or which binds the forthcoming Council of Ministers, except for that already
specified in the annual appropriations;
(2) refraining from appointing or transferring any government official who holds a
permanent position or receives a salary, or any employee of a State agency, State enterprise
or any enterprise thereof the State is a major shareholder, or from causing such person to
be discharged from duties or removed from office or be replaced by another person, except
by prior approval of the Election Commission;
(3) refraining from committing an act which results in the approval of the
spending of budget reserved for emergency or necessary circumstance, except by prior
approval of the Election Commission;
(4) refraining from using resources or personnel of the State to commit any act
which may affect result of an election, and from committing an act in violation of any
prohibition under the regulation prescribed by the Election Commission.
Section 170 The ministerial status of an individual Minister shall terminate
upon:
(1) death;
(2) resignation;
(3) the passing of a vote of no-confidence by the House of Representatives;
(4) being disqualified or being under any of the prohibitions under Section 160;
(5) committing an act of prohibition under Section 186 or Section 187;
(6) the issuance of a Royal Command removing a Minister from office according
to Section 171.
In addition to the grounds for the termination of the ministerial status of an
individual minister under Paragraph One, the ministerial status of the Prime Minister shall
terminate upon the expiration of the period under Section 158 Paragraph Four.
The provisions of Section 82 shall apply mutatis mutandis to the termination of
the ministerial status under (2), (4), or (5) or Paragraph Two, and for this purpose the

Election Commission shall also have the power to refer the matter to the Constitutional
Court for decision thereon.
Section 171 The King has the prerogative to remove a Minister from office
upon the advice of the Prime Minister.
Section 172 For the purpose of maintaining national or public safety,
national economic security, or averting public calamity, the King may issue an Emergency
Decree which shall have the force as an Act.
The issuance of an Emergency Decree under Paragraph One shall be made
merely when the Council of Ministers is of the opinion that it is the circumstance of
unavoidable exigency.
In the next succeeding sitting of the National Assembly, the Council of Ministers
shall submit the Emergency Decree to the National Assembly for its consideration without
delay. If it is out of session and it would be a delay to wait for the opening of an ordinary
session, the Council of Ministers shall proceed to convoke an extraordinary session of the
National Assembly in order to promptly consider whether to approve or disapprove the
Emergency Decree. In the case where the House of Representatives disapproves it, or
approves it but the Senate disapproves it and the House of Representatives reaffirms its
approval by the votes of not more than one-half of the total number of the existing
members of the House of Representatives, the Emergency Decree shall lapse. In this case, it
shall not affect any act undertaken during the enforcement of such Emergency Decree.
If the Emergency Decree under Paragraph One has the effect of amending or
repealing provisions of any Act, and such Emergency Decree has lapsed in accordance with
Paragraph Three, the provisions of the Act in force before the amendment or the repeal
shall continue to be in force as from the date the disapproval of such Emergency Decree is
effective.
If the House of Representatives and the Senate approve the Emergency Decree,
or if the Senate disapproves it but the House of Representatives reaffirms its approval by
the votes of more than one-half of the total number of the existing members of the House,
such Emergency Decree shall continue to have the force as an Act.

The Prime Minister shall cause the approval or disapproval of the Emergency
Decree to be published in the Government Gazette. In case of disapproval, it shall be
effective as from the day following the date of its publication in the Government Gazette.
The consideration of an Emergency Decree by the Senate and the House of
Representatives and the reaffirmation of the Emergency Decree shall be undertaken at the
first opportunity when each House holds its sitting.
Section 173 Before the House of Representatives or the Senate approves
an Emergency Decree, members of the House of Representatives or senators of not less
than one-fifth of the total number of the existing members of each House shall have the
right to submit an opinion to the President of the House of which they are members that
the Emergency Decree is not in accordance with Section 172 Paragraph One, and to request
the President of such House to refer the opinion to the Constitutional Court for decision
within three days from the date of receipt of the opinion. The consideration of the
Emergency Decree shall be suspended until the decision of the Constitutional Court is
notified.
The Constitutional Court shall render its decision within sixty days from the date
of the receipt of the matter, and shall notify its decision to the President of the House
wherefrom such opinion has been referred.
In the case where the Constitutional Court decides that any Emergency Decree is
not in compliance with Section 172 Paragraph One, such Emergency Decree shall not have
the force of law ab initio.
The decision of the Constitutional Court that any Emergency Decree is not in
compliance with Section 172 Paragraph One shall be on account of the votes of not less
than two-thirds of the total number of the existing Constitutional Judges.
Section 174 Where it is of necessity to have a law on taxes or currency
which, in the interest of the State, requires an urgent and confidential consideration, the
King may issue an Emergency Decree which shall have the force as an Act.
The provisions of Section 172 Paragraph Three, Paragraph Four, Paragraph Five,
Paragraph Six, and Paragraph Seven shall apply to the Emergency Decree enacted under

Paragraph One mutatis mutandis. In case of the enactment during a session, the Emergency
Decree shall be submitted to the House of Representatives within three days as from the
day following the date of its publication in the Government Gazette.
Section 175 The King has the prerogative to issue a Royal Decree which is
not contrary to the law.
Section 176 The King has the prerogative to declare and lift the martial
law.
In the case where it is necessary to declare the martial law in a certain locality as
a matter of urgency, the military authority shall do so under the Martial Law.
Section 177 The King has the prerogative to declare war with the approval
of the National Assembly.
The approval of the resolution of the National Assembly shall be passed by the
votes of not less than two-thirds of the total number of the existing members of both
Houses.
Section 178 The King has the prerogative to conclude a peace treaty,
armistice and other treaties with other countries or international organizations.
A treaty, which provides for a change in the Thai territories or the external
territory under the sovereignty or jurisdiction of Thailand according to a treaty or an
international law, or requires the enactment of an Act for the implementation of the treaty
and other treaties which may constitute immense impact on the economic or social security
or the trade or investment of the country, shall be approved by the National Assembly. In
such case, the National Assembly must complete its consideration within sixty days as from
the date of receipt of such treaty. If the National Assembly fails to complete within the
specified period, it shall be deemed that the National Assembly has approved such treaty.
Other treaties which may constitute immense impact on the economic or social
security or the trade or investment of the country under Paragraph Two include the treaties
relating to free trade, joint customs area, or permitting the utilization of natural resources
or resulting in the loss of rights of the State in natural resources, wholly or partly, or other
treaties as provided by law.

There shall be a law prescribing the procedure for people to participate by
expressing their opinions and to be provided with necessary remedy for the impact of the
conclusion the treaties under Paragraph Three.
When a question arises whether or not any treaty falls under Paragraph Two or
Paragraph Three, the Council of Ministers may request the Constitutional Court to decide
thereon. In such case, the Constitutional Court shall conclude its decision within thirty days
as from the date of receipt of the request.
Section 179 The King has the prerogative to grant a pardon.
Section 180 The King appoints and removes officials in the military service
and civil service who hold the positions of Permanent Secretary, Director-General and their
equivalents, except in case of the vacation of office upon death, retirement or punishment.
Section 181 A government official and a State official holding a permanent
position or receiving a salary and not being a political official shall not be a political official
or hold any other political position.
Section 182 All laws, Royal Rescripts and Royal Commands relating to the
State affairs must be countersigned by a Minister, unless otherwise provided in the
Constitution.
The person countersigning the Royal Command shall take charge of all affairs
under the Royal Command.
Section 183 Emoluments and other remuneration of Privy Councilors,
President and Vice-Presidents of the House of Representatives, President and Vice-
Presidents of the Senate, Leader of the Opposition in the House of Representatives,
members of the House of Representatives and senators shall be prescribed by the Royal
Decree.
Gratuities, pensions or other remuneration of Privy Councilors who vacate office
shall be prescribed by the Royal Decree.

 

CHAPTER IX

Conflict of Interests
______________

Section 184 Members of the House of Representatives and senators shall

not:

(1) hold any position or have any duty in a government agency, a State agency or
a State enterprise, or hold a position of a member of a local assembly or a local
administrator;
(2) receive or interfere or intervene in any concession from the State, a
government agency, a State agency or a State enterprise, or become a party to a contract of
the nature of monopoly with the State, a government agency, a State agency or a State
enterprise, or be a partner or a shareholder in a partnership or a company being granted
such concession or becoming a party to the contract of such nature, whether directly or
indirectly;
(3) receive any special money or benefit from a government agency, a State
agency or a State enterprise other than that given by the government agency, the State
agency or the State enterprise to other persons in the ordinary course of business;
(4) act, directly or indirectly, in a manner of wrongfully hindering or intervening in
the exercise of rights or liberties of newspapers or mass media;
The provisions of this Section shall not apply in the case where a member of the
House of Representatives or a senator receives a military pension, a gratuity, a pension, an
annuity of a member of the royal family or any other money of the same nature, and shall
not apply in the case where a member of the House of Representatives or a senator accepts
or holds a position in a committee of the National Assembly, the House of Representatives
or the Senate, or in a committee appointed for the administration of the State affairs
concerned with the activities of the Houses, or in a committee as specifically provided by
law.
The provisions in (2) and (3) shall apply to spouses and children of members of

the House of Representatives or senators and to other persons than spouses and children of
such members of the House of Representatives or senators who act in a manner of server,
participant, or being entrusted by members of the House of Representatives or senators to
commit the acts under this Section.
Section 185 Members of the House of Representatives or senators shall
not, through the status or the position of members of the House of Representatives or
senators, commit an act of intervention or interference in the following matters, directly or
indirectly, in the interest of oneself, another person or a political party,
(1) the performance of official duties or the undertaking of regular duties of a
government official, official or employee of a government agency, a State agency, a State
enterprise, or an enterprise therein the State holds the majority of the shares, or a local
government organization;
(2) the facilitation of self- involvement in the spending of budget or in the
approval of any project of a State agency, unless it falls under the activities of the National
Assembly;
(3) the recruitment, appointment, reshuffle, transfer, promotion, salary increase,
or removal from office of a government official holding a permanent position or receiving a
salary and not being a political official, an official or employee of a government agency, a
State agency, a State enterprise, an enterprise therein the State holds the majority of the
shares, or a local government organization.
Section 186 The provisions of Section 184 shall apply to Ministers mutatis
mutandis, except for:
(1) the holding of a position or the undertaking required by the provisions of the
law to be the duties or powers of the Ministers;
(2) the commission of an act in accordance with the duties and powers in the
administration of the State affairs or the policies stated to the National Assembly or the
provisions of law.
In addition to the acts enumerated under Paragraph One, the Ministers shall not
abuse their status or position to commit any act, directly or indirectly, which wrongfully
intervenes in or interferes with the performance of duties of a State official in the interest of

oneself, another person or any political party as provided in the ethical standard.
Section 187 A Minister shall not be a partner or shareholder of a
partnership or a company or retain his being a partner or shareholder of a partnership or a
company up to the limit specified by law, and shall not be an employee of any person.
In the case where any Minister intends to continue to receive benefits in such
cases under Paragraph One, such Minister shall inform the President of the National
Counter Corruption Commission within thirty days as from the date of the appointment, and
shall transfer his shares in the partnership or company to a juristic person which manages
assets for the benefit of other persons, as provided by law.
The Minister shall not, in any way, be involved in the management of shares or
affairs of the partnership or company under Paragraph Two.
The provisions in this Section which are specifically concerned with being a
partner or shareholder shall apply to the spouse and minor children of a Minister and the
holding of shares of a minister under possession or care of other persons in any way.

 

CHAPTER X

The Courts
___________

Part 1

General Provisions
__________

Section 188 The trial and adjudication of cases are the powers of the
Courts, which shall proceed in accordance with the law and in the name of the King.
Judges and tribunals shall be independent in the trial and adjudication of cases in
an expeditious, fair and without prejudice manner according to the Constitution and law.
Section 189 All Courts shall be established by Acts.
An establishment of a new Court or the prescription of a procedure for the trial
and adjudication of any particular case or a case of any particular charge in lieu of the Court
existing under the law and having jurisdiction over such case shall be prohibited.
Section 190 The King appoints and removes judges and tribunals. In case of
vacating office upon death, retirement or expiration of term, or being discharged from
official service as a result of punishment, the King shall be informed accordingly.
Section 191 Before taking office, a judge shall make a solemn declaration
before the King in the following words:
“I, (name of the declarer) do solemnly declare that I will be loyal to His Majesty
the King and will faithfully perform my duties in the name of the King without any partiality
in the interest of justice, of the people and of the public order of the Kingdom. I will also
uphold and observe the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the
State, the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand and the law in every respect.”
Section 192 In the case where there is a dispute over the competent
jurisdiction among the Courts of Justice, the Administrative Court, or the Military Court, it
shall be decided by a committee consisting of the President of the Supreme Court as the

Chairperson, and the President of the Supreme Administrative Court, the Chief of Military
Judicial Office, and not more than four experts as the members, as provided by law.
The rules and procedure for adjudging the dispute over the competent
jurisdiction under Paragraph One shall be as provided by law.
Section 193 Each Court shall, except for the Military Court, have an office
in charge of administration being independent in personnel administration, budgeting, and
other affairs with one superior under supervision of the President of each Court, as provided
by law.
The Court of Justice and the Administrative Court shall have specific system of
salary and remuneration, as appropriate, as provided by law.

Part 2

Courts of Justice
______________

Section 194 The Courts of Justice have the powers to try and adjudicate all
cases, except those specified by the Constitution or the law to be within the jurisdiction of
other courts.
The establishment, procedure, and operations of the Courts of Justice shall be
according to the law governing such matter.
Section 195 There shall be in the Supreme Court a Criminal Division for
Persons Holding Political Positions, the quorum of which consists of not less than five and up
to nine judges of the Supreme Court holding a position of not lower than Judge of the
Supreme Court or senior judges having held a position of not lower than Judge of the
Supreme Court, and elected, on a case-by-case basis, at the general meeting of the Supreme
Court in accordance with the organic Act on criminal procedure for persons holding political
positions.
The competent jurisdiction of the Supreme Court Criminal Division for Persons
Holding Political Positions shall be as provided by the Constitution.

The criminal procedure for persons holding political positions shall be in
accordance with the organic law on criminal procedure for persons holding political
positions.
An appeal against a judgment of the Supreme Court Criminal Division for Persons
Holding Political Positions shall be submitted to the general meeting of the Supreme Court
within thirty days from the date of issuance of such judgment.
Adjudication of the appeal by the general meeting of the Supreme Court under
Paragraph Four shall be proceeded by a quorum of the Supreme Court elected on a case-by-
case basis by the general meeting of the Supreme Court, which consists of nine judges of the
Supreme Court who hold a position of not lower than the Chief Judge of the Supreme Court
or senior judges having held a position of not lower than the Chief Judge of the Supreme
Court and who have not previously adjudicate such case. The judgment rendered by the
quorum of the Supreme Court shall be considered the appeal judgment of the general
meeting of the Supreme Court.
In the case where the Supreme Court Criminal Division for Persons Holding
Political Positions has rendered a judgment to remove any person from office, or its
judgment has resulted in the removal of any person from office, regardless of whether or
not the appeal has been filed under Paragraph Four, such person shall vacate office as from
the date of the judgment rendered by Supreme Court Criminal Division for Persons Holding
Political Positions.
The rules and procedure for filing the appeal under Paragraph Four and the
adjudication of the appeal under Paragraph Five shall be according to the Organic Act on
Criminal Procedure for Persons Holding Political Positions.
Section 196 Personnel administration relating to judges of the Courts of
Justice shall be independent and executed by the Judicial Commission of the Courts of
Justice, which consists of the President of the Supreme Court as the Chairperson and
qualified members who are judicial officials from each level of the Courts and not more than
two qualified members who are not or were not judicial officials and are elected by judicial
officials, as provided by law.

Part 3

Administrative Courts
______________

Section 197 Administrative Courts have the power to try and adjudicate
administrative cases as a consequence of the exercise of an administrative power according
to the law or of the undertaking of an administrative affair, as provided by law.
There shall be the Supreme Administrative Court and the Administrative Court of
First Instance.
The jurisdiction of the Administrative Courts under Paragraph One shall not
include the adjudication made by Constitutional Organizations as the direct exercise of their
powers under the Constitution.
The establishment, procedure, and operations of the Administrative Courts shall
be according to the law governing such matter.
Section 198 Personnel administration relating to judges of the
Administrative Courts shall be independent and executed by the Judicial Commission of the
Administrative Courts, which consists of the President of the Supreme Administrative Court
as the Chairperson and qualified members who are judges in the Administrative Courts and
not more than two qualified members who are not or have never been judges in the
Administrative Courts and are elected by judicial officials of the Administrative Courts, as
provided by law.

Part 4
Military Courts
___________

Section 199 Military Courts have the power to try and adjudicate criminal
cases therein the offenders are subject to the jurisdiction of the Military Courts and other
cases, as provided by law.The establishment, procedure, and operations of the Military Courts, and the appointment and removal from office of military judges shall be according to the law governing such matter.

 

CHAPTER XI

The Constitutional Court

______________

Section 200 The Constitutional Court consists of nine Constitutional
Judges as appointed by the King as follows:
(1) three judges of the Supreme Court having held a position of not lower than
the Chief Judge of the Supreme Court for not less than three years who are elected at the
general meeting of the Supreme Court;
(2) two judges of the Supreme Administrative Court having held a position of not
lower than the Chief Judge of the Administrative Court for not less than five years who are
elected at the general meeting of the Supreme Administrative Court;
(3) one qualified person in law who is selected from persons holding a position of
professor or having in the past held a position of professor in the universities in Thailand for
not less than five years with outstanding academic work;
(4) one qualified person in political science or public administration who is
selected from persons holding a position of n professor or having in the past held a position
of professor in the universities in Thailand for not less than five years with outstanding
academic work;
(5) two qualified persons who are selected from officials or former officials
holding a position of not lower than the Director-General or its equivalent or a position of
not lower than the Deputy Attorney General for not less than five year.
In the case where no Chief Judge of the Supreme Court under (1) is elected, the
general meeting of the Supreme Court shall may elect persons having in the past held a
position of not lower than a Judge of the Supreme Court for not less than three years.
The periods under Paragraph One shall count up to the date of being elected or
the date of application for the selection, as the case may be. Under an unavoidable
necessary circumstance, the Selection Committee may announce the reduction of the
periods under Paragraph One or Paragraph Two, but shall not reduce to less than two years.

Section 201 A Judge of the Constitutional Court shall possess the
following qualifications:
(1) being of Thai nationality by birth;
(2) being not less than forty five and not over sixty eight years of
age, on the date of being selected or the date of application
(3) having graduated with not lower than a bachelor degree or
its equivalent;
(4) being a person with apparent honesty;
(5) having a good health condition to perform duties effectively.
Section 202 A Judge of the Constitutional Court shall not be under any of
the following prohibitions:
(1) being or having in the past been a Judge of the Constitutional Court or holding
a position in any Constitutional Organization;
(2) being under the prohibitions in Section 98 (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9),
(10), (11), (17) or (18);
(3) having been sentenced to imprisonment by a final judgment of a court, unless
it is on account of an offence committed with negligence or a misdemeanor;
(4) being or having in the past been a member of the House of Representatives, a
senator, a political official, or a member of a local assembly or a local administrator over the
period of ten years preceding the election or selection;
(5) being or having in the past been a member or a holder of another position in a
political party over the period of ten years preceding the election or selection;
(6) being a government official holding a permanent position or receiving a salary;
(7) being an official or employee of a State agency, a state enterprise, or a local
government organization, or being a board member or an advisor of a State agency or state
enterprise;
(8) holding a position in a partnership of a company, or an organization carrying
out business with a view to sharing profit or income or being an employee of any person;
(9) engaging in an independent profession;
(10) possessing a behavior seriously violating or disobeying the ethical standard.

Section 203 The selection of persons suitable to be appointed as Judges of
the Constitutional Court shall be the duty and power of the Selection Committee which
comprises:
(1) President of the Supreme Court, as the Chairperson;
(2) President of the House of Representatives and Leader of the Opposition in the
House of Representatives, as committees;
(3) President of the Supreme Administrative Court, as a committee member;
(4) a person appointed by each Constitutional Organization under Section 201 and
not being under any of the prohibitions in Section 202, and not having in the past performed
any duty in the Constitutional Court or a Constitutional Organization, as committee
members.
In case of none members of the Selection Committee as specified under (2) or
incomplete members of the Selection Committee under (4), for any reason whatsoever, the
Selection Committee shall be composed of the existing members.
The Secretariat of the Senate shall act as the administrative office of the Selection
Committee.
The Selection Committee shall select persons suitable to be appointed as Judges
of the Constitutional Court in accordance with the rules, procedure and conditions as
prescribed in the Organic Act on the Procedure of the Constitutional Court.
Where there is a problem relating to the qualifications of a candidate, or the
person who has been elected or selected, the Selection Committee shall have the duty and
power to decide thereon and the decision of the Selection Committee shall be final.
In the selection process, the Selection Committee shall hold consultation for the
purpose of achieving persons with high responsibility, courage in performing duties, and
ethical behavior as a role model for the society. For such purpose, the Selection Committee
may, in addition to the application advertisement, select qualified persons from the general
public, provided that the consent must be obtained from such persons.

Section 204 A person elected or selected for appointment as a Judge of the
Constitutional Court shall be approved by the Senate with the votes of not less than one-
half of the existing members of the Senate.
In the event that the Senate has not approved any selected or elected person, a
replacing person shall be selected or elected and nominated to the Senate for approval.
Upon approval of the selected or elected persons by the Senate, such persons
shall elect one among themselves to be the President of the Constitutional Court and inform
the President of the Senate in this respect.
The President of the Senate shall tender their names to the King for appointment
as the President and the Judges of the Constitutional Court, and shall countersign the Royal
Command.
Section 205 The person approved by the Senate to be a Judge of the
Constitutional Court while having not resigned from the position under Section 202 (6), (7)
or (8) or having not ceased to engage in the independent profession under (9) shall present
to the President of the Senate the proof of resignation or cessation according to Section 202
(6), (7), (8) or (9) within the period specified by the President of the Senate which must be
before the tendering of their names to the King according to Section 204 Paragraph Four. In
the case where the proof has not been presented within such specified period, it shall be
deemed that the person has renounced his or her right and a new election or selection shall
proceed.
Section 206 Following the consideration for approval under Section 204, if
not less than seven persons have been approved by the Senate, they shall elect one among
themselves to be the President of the Constitutional Court and inform the result thereof to
the President of the Senate without having to wait until the approval of nine persons is
complete. Upon the Royal appointment, the Constitutional Court shall perform according to
its duties and powers pro tempore and the Constitutional Court shall be deemed to
comprise the existing Judges of the Constitutional Court.

Section 207 The Judges of the Constitutional Court shall hold office for a
term of seven years as from the date of their appointment by the King and shall hold office
for only one term.
Section 208 In addition to the vacation of office upon the expiration of the
term, the Judges of the Constitutional Court shall vacate office upon:
(1) being disqualified under Section 201 or being under any of the prohibitions in
Section 202;
(2) death;
(3) resignation;
(4) being of seventy five years of age;
(5) being removed from office by a resolution of the Constitutional Court as
passed by the votes of not less than three-fourths of the existing Judges on the ground of
violating or disobeying the ethical standard of the Judges of the Constitutional Court;
(6) vacation of office on the ground prescribed in Section 235 Paragraph Three;
When the President of the Constitutional Court resigns from the position, he or
she shall vacate the position of a Judge of the Constitutional Court as well.
In the case where a Judge of the Constitutional Court vacates office upon the
expiration of the term, the outgoing Judge shall continue to perform duties until the
appointment of a new Judge of the Constitutional Court.
Where a question arises whether or not any Judge of the Constitutional Court
vacates office according to (1) or (3), the Selection Committee shall have the duty and
power to decide pursuant to Section 203, and the decision of the Selection Committee shall
be final.
A petition, a petitioner, the consideration, and the decision under Paragraph Four
shall be in accordance with the rules and procedure as prescribed in the Organic Act on the
Procedure of the Constitutional Court.
Section 209 In the event that a Judge of the Constitutional Court vacates
office before expiration of the term and a new Judge has not been appointed to fill in the
vacancy, the remaining Judges of the Constitutional Court shall continue to perform duties.

The provision under Paragraph One shall not apply in case of less than seven
remaining Judges.
Section 210 The Constitutional Court shall have the following duties and
powers:
(1) adjudicate the constitutionality of a law or bill;
(2) adjudicate the problems concerned with the duties and powers of the House
of Representatives, the Senate, the Council of Ministers, or the Constitutional Organizations;
(3) other duties and powers as provided in the Constitution.
The submission of a petition and the conditions thereof, the adjudication, the
preparation of adjudication, and the operations of the Constitutional Court, other than
those provided in the Constitution, shall be in accordance with the Organic Act on the
Procedure of the Constitutional Court.
The provisions under Section 188, Section 190, Section 191 and Section 193 shall
apply to the Constitutional Court mutatis mutandis.
Section 211 The quorum of Judges of the Constitutional Court for hearing
and giving a decision shall consist of not less than seven judges.
The decision of the Constitutional Court shall be made by a majority of votes,
unless otherwise provided in the Constitution.
In the case where the Constitutional Court accepts any case for consideration, any
Judge of the Constitutional Court may not refuse to consider it with the reason that such
case does not fall under the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court.
The decision of the Constitutional Court shall be deemed final and binding on the
National Assembly, the Council of Ministers, the Courts, the Constitutional Organizations
and State organs.
Section 212 In the application of the provisions of law to any case, if the
Court by itself is of the opinion that, or a party to the case argues with justifications that, the
provisions of such law fall within the Section 5 and there has not yet been a decision of the
Constitutional Court on such provisions, the Court shall stay its trial and adjudication of the
case and meanwhile submit its opinion to the Constitutional Court for consideration and

decision. Under such circumstance, the Court shall suspend its judgment until the
Constitutional Court has rendered its decision.
In the case where the Constitutional Court is of the opinion that the argument of
the party under Paragraph One is not reasonably essential to decide upon, the
Constitutional Court may refuse to accept the case for consideration.
The decision of the Constitutional Court shall apply to all cases with no effect on
final judgments of the Courts. Except in criminal cases, it shall be deemed that the persons
convicted by the Court for committing the offences under the provisions of law decided by
the Constitutional Court to violate Section 5 have never committed such offences, and if the
persons are under imprisonment they shall be released. In this case, no right to any
compensation or damage shall be instituted.
Section 213 A person whose rights or liberties recognized by the
Constitution are violated shall be entitled to file a complaint with the Constitutional Court
for its decision if such act of violation is contrary to or inconsistent with the Constitution,
according to the rules, procedure and conditions as provided in the Organic Act on the
Procedure of the Constitutional Court.
Section 214 Under the circumstance where a Judge of the Constitutional
Court must cease to perform duties pursuant to Section 235 Paragraph Three, and there are
less than seven remaining Judges, the President of the Supreme Court and the President of
the Supreme Administrative Court shall jointly appoint a person possessing the
qualifications and not being under the prohibitions, as applied to Judges of the
Constitutional Court, to temporarily act as a Constitutional Judge to complete the total
number of nine Judges. In this case, the person appointed shall act as a Judge of the
Constitutional Court until the replaced Judge returns to office or the replacing Judge has
been appointed.

 

CHAPTER XII
Constitutional Organizations
______________

Part 1
General Provisions
_____________

Section 215 The Constitutional Organizations are the organizations
established with the aim to independently perform duties in accordance with the
Constitution and laws.
The performance of duties and the exercise of powers of the Constitutional
Organizations shall be in good faith, with fairness and courage, and without bias in the
exercise of their discretion.
Section 216 Other than the qualifications and prohibition as prescribed
specifically in the part concerning each Constitutional Organization, a holder of a position in
a Constitutional Organization shall generally have the qualifications and not be under the
prohibitions as provided hereunder:
(1) being not less than forty-five years and not more than seventy years of age;
(2) having the qualifications under Section 201 (1), (3), (4) and (5);
(3) not being under any of the prohibitions in Section 202.
Section 217 The selection of a person suitable to be appointed as a
position holder in a Constitutional Organization, except for the National Human Rights
Commission, shall be the duty and power of the Selection Committee under Section 203 to
undertake the acquisition, except that the Selection Committee as provided in Section 203
(4) shall consist of persons appointed by the Constitutional Court and Constitutional
Organizations whose members are not selected by a selection committee.

Page 97 of 137

Section 203, Section 204, Section 205 and Section 206 shall apply mutatis
mutandis to the selection under Paragraph One.
Section 218 Other than vacating office upon expiration of the term, a
position holder in a Constitutional Organization shall vacate office upon:
(1) death;
(2) resignation;
(3) not having the qualifications or being under the general prohibitions in
Section 216, or not having the qualifications or being under the specific prohibitions in
Section 222, Section 228, Section 232, Section 238 or Section 246 Paragraph Two and as
provided in the laws enacted under Section 246 Paragraph Four, as the case may be.
The provisions of Section 208 Paragraph Two, Paragraph Three, Paragraph Four
and Paragraph Five and Section 208 shall apply mutatis mutandis to the vacation from office
of position holders in the Constitutional Organizations.
In the case where a position holder in a Constitutional Organization must cease to
perform duties pursuant to Section 235 Paragraph Three, if the remaining members are less
than one-half of the total number, the provisions of Section 214 shall apply mutatis
mutandis.
Section 219 The Constitutional Court and the Constitutional Organizations
shall jointly develop the ethical standard for application with the Judges of the
Constitutional Court and the position holders in the Constitutional Organizations including
the Ombudsman and heads of administration in the Constitutional Court and the
Constitutional Organizations. Upon their publication in the Government Gazette, the ethical
standard shall enter into force. Such standard shall cover the upholding of national prestige
and interest, and shall explicitly specify what type of violation or disobedience of the ethical
standard is deemed to be of serious nature.
In the development of the ethical standard under Paragraph One, opinions of the
House of Representatives, the Senate and the Council of Ministers shall be taken into
consideration and, upon their promulgation, it shall apply to members of the House of
Representatives, the Senate and the Council of Ministers, but this does not prohibit the
House of Representatives, the Senate and the Council of Ministers to add their own set of

ethical rules specifically appropriate to their performance of duties, provided that they are
not contrary to or inconsistent with the ethical standard under Paragraph One and must be
published in the Government Gazette.
Section 220 Each Constitutional Organization, excluding the State Audit
Commission, shall have an office responsible for administrative affairs, operations and
facilities so as to ensure that the Organization will achieve its mission and duties as provided
in the Constitution and the law and perform according to the resolution or direction it so
has determined. The office shall have one head, appointed upon approval of the
Organization, taking charge of the administration and responsible directly to such
Constitutional Organization, as provided by law.
Section 221 In performing duties, the Constitutional Organizations shall
cooperate and assist each other with a view to achieving their goals. If any Constitutional
Organization is of the opinion that a person has committed a wrongful act under the duties
and powers of another Constitutional Organization, it shall notify such Organization for
further proceeding according to the duties and powers thereof.

Part 2
The Election Commission
_____________

Section 222 The Election Commission shall consist of seven members
appointed by the King, with the advice of the Senate, as follows:
(1) five persons possessing knowledge and expertise in various academic fields
beneficial to the conduct of honest and fair elections, and having apparent honesty, who
have been selected by the Selection Committee;
(2) two persons possessing knowledge, expertise and experience in laws and
having apparent honesty, and having in the past held a position of not lower than the Chief
Judge or Chief Prosecutor for not less than five years, who have been selected by the
general meeting of the Supreme Court;

A person to be selected as an Election Commissioner under (1) shall have the
qualifications as prescribed in Sections 232 (2), (3), (4), (5), (6) or (7), or work or have in the
past worked in the civil society sector for not less than twenty years, as specified by the
Selection Committee.
Section 223 The Election Commissioners shall hold office for a term of seven years
as from the date of their appointment by the King, and shall hold office for one term.
In the event that an Election Commissioner vacates office before the expiration of
the term and a new Commissioner has not been appointed to fill in the vacancy, the
remaining Commissioners shall continue to perform duties, except in case of less than four
remaining Commissioners they shall perform specifically to the extent of necessity for
unavoidable affairs.
Section 224 The Election Commission shall have the duties and powers as
follows:
(1) organize or arrange for the conduct of election of members of the House of
Representatives, selection of senators and election of members of the local councils and
local executives, and the conduct of public referendum;
(2) govern the election and the selection under (1) to be in an honest and fair
manner, and govern the voting in a referendum to conform with the law. For this purpose, it
shall have investigation or inquiry power as deemed necessary or expedient.
(3) where the result of the investigation or inquiry under (2) reveals that or there
is an apparent act that reasonably leads to doubt that the election or selection under (1) has
not been conducted with honesty or fairness, or the voting in a referendum has been
unlawfully conducted, it shall have the power to suspend, restrain, alter or cancel the
election or selection or the voting in a referendum and order a new proceeding of election,
selection or the voting in referendum in some polling stations or all.
(4) order temporary suspension of the right to apply for candidacy of a candidate
in the election or selection under (1) for a period of not more than one year if there is
reasonable evidence to believe that such person has committed an act or known of the act
committed by another person in a dishonest fashion or causing the election or selection to
be dishonest or unfair;
(5) govern the operations of political parties to conform to the law;

(6) other duties and powers as provided by the Constitution or the law.
In the investigation or inquiry under (2), the Election Commission may entrust
each Commissioner to carry out such duty thereof or entrust a group of persons to
undertake it under the supervision of an Election Commissioner according to the rules and
procedure as prescribed by the Election Commission.
Each Election Commissioner who has witnessed a wrongful act shall exercise the
power under (3) at a polling station or in a constituency where such act has been
committed, in accordance with the rules, procedure and conditions as prescribed by the
Election Commission.
Section 225 Before an announcement of the result of the election or selection is
made, if there is reasonable evidence to believe that the election or selection is not honest
or fair, the Election Commission shall have the power to order a new election or selection in
the concerned polling station or constituency. If the person having committed the dishonest
or unfair act is a candidate in the election or selection, as the case may be, or having known
of the dishonest or unfair act committed by another person, the Election Commission shall
order temporary suspension of his or her right to candidacy in accordance with Section 224
(4).
The order under Paragraph One shall be final.
Section 226 During the proceeding under Section 225 or after the announcement
of the result of the election or selection, if there is reasonable evidence to believe that any
candidate in the election or selection has committed a dishonest act in the election or
selection or known of the dishonest act of another person, the Election Commission shall
submit a petition to the Supreme Court requesting revocation of the right to candidacy or
the right to vote of such person.
In the consideration under Paragraph One, the Supreme Court shall base on the
findings of the investigation or inquiry of the Election Commission and, in the interest of
justice, the Court shall have the power to order further inquiry into fact and evidence.
In the case where the Supreme Court has decided that the person in Paragraph
One has committed an offence as petitioned, the Supreme Court shall order revocation of

his or her candidacy or voting right for a period of ten years, in accordance with the Organic
Law on the Election of Members of the House of Representatives or the Organic Law on the
Acquisition of Senators, as the case may be.
Upon the order of the Supreme Court to accept the petition for consideration, if
the alleged person is a member of the House of Representatives or a senator, such person
shall cease to perform duties until the Supreme Court has rendered its decision of
innocence. If the Supreme Court has decided that the person is guilty, the membership of
such member of the House of Representatives or senator shall terminate as from the date
of cessation of duties.
The member of the House of Representatives of the senator who has ceased to
perform duties under Paragraph Four shall not be included in the total number of existing
members of the House of Representatives or the Senate, as the case may be.
This Section shall apply to the election of members of the local councils or local
administrators mutatis mutandis, except that, in such case, the Court of Appeal shall have
the power of the Supreme Court and its order or decision shall be final.
The consideration and the decision of the Supreme Court or the Court of Appeal
pursuant to this Section shall be in accordance with the Regulations of the general meeting
of the Supreme Court which must apply the inquiry system and be undertaken with no
delay.
Section 227 While a Royal Decree calling for an election of members of the House
of Representatives or a selection of senators or a Notification calling for voting in a
referendum is effective, no Election Commissioner shall be arrested, detained or summoned
by a warrant for inquiry, unless permitted by the Election Commission or the arrest is made
in flagrante delicto.
In the case where an Election Commissioner is arrested in flagrante delicto, or
where an Election Commissioner is arrested or detained under other circumstances, the
Chairperson of the Election Commission shall be forthwith reported thereto, and the
Chairperson may order a release of the person so arrested, except in the case where the

Chairperson of the Election Commission is arrested or detained, the existing Election
Commissioners shall have the power to order a release.

Part 3
The Ombudsmen
_____________

Section 228 There shall be three Ombudsmen appointed by the King, with
the advice of the Senate, from the persons selected by the Selection Committee.
The selected persons shall consist of two persons who are of apparent honesty
with knowledge, expertise and experience in the administration of State affairs not lower
than the position of Director-General or equivalent head of government service or head of a
State agency not lower than a department as required by the Selection Committee and have
been in such position for a period of not less than five years; and one person with
experience in the administration of public enterprises for a period of not less than twenty
years.
Section 229 The Ombudsmen shall hold office for a term of seven years as
from the date of appointment by the King, and shall hold office for only one term.
Section 230 The Ombudsmen shall have the duties and powers as follows:
(1) advise relevant State agencies to revise any law, rule, regulation or order or
procedure which causes trouble or unfairness for people or unnecessary or unreasonable
burdens on people;
(2) inquire into fact upon the awareness of any person who is in trouble or not
fairly treated as a result of the failure to comply with the law or the performance excessive
of duties and powers of a State agency or State official, with a view to advising the
concerned agency to eliminate or restrain such trouble or unfairness.
(3) inform the Council of Ministers in respect of the State agencies that have not
fully and properly complied with Chapter 5, Duties of the State.

In the event that the relevant State agencies fail to act in compliance with the
advice of the Ombudsmen under (1) or (2) without a reasonable cause, the Ombudsmen
shall inform the Council of the Ministers to further consider ordering the proceeding under
(1) or (2) as deemed appropriate.
In taking actions pursuant to Paragraph One and Paragraph Two, where the
matter is related to the violation of human rights, the Ombudsman shall refer it to the
National Human Rights Commission for further proceeding.
Section 231 In the performance of duties pursuant to Section 230, the
Ombudsmen may refer a case to the Constitutional Court or the Administrative Court under
the following circumstances:
(1) where a question arises in respect of the constitutionality of provisions of any
law, the Ombudsmen shall refer the case, with its opinions attached, to the Constitutional
Court thereon the Court shall consider and decide without delay, in accordance with the
Organic Act on the Procedure of the Constitutional Court;
(2) where a question arises in relation to the constitutionality or the legitimacy of
any rule, order or other act of a State agency or State official, the Ombudsmen shall refer
the case, with its opinions attached, to the Administrative Court thereon the Court shall
consider and decide without delay, in accordance with the Organic Law on the
Establishment and Procedure of the Administrative Court;

Part 4
The National Counter Corruption Commission
_____________

Section 232 The National Counter Corruption Commission consists of nine
members appointed by the King, with the advice of the Senate, from the persons selected
by the Selection Committee.
The persons selected must be of apparent honesty with knowledge, expertise
and experience in law, accounting, economics, public administration or any other field

beneficial to the prevention and suppression of corruption, and must possess any of the
following qualifications:
(1) being or having in the past been in government service holding the position
of not lower than Chief Judge, Chief Administrative Judge of First Instance, Chief Judge of
the Military Court of Appeals, or Director-General for Public Prosecution for not less than
five years;
(2) being or having in the past been in government service holding the position
of not lower than the Director-General or equivalent head of government service for not
less than five years;
(3) holding or having in the past held the highest executive position in a State
enterprise or another State agency which is not a government service or a State enterprise
for not less than five years;
(4) holding or having in the past held a professor position of a university in
Thailand for not less than five years with apparent academic performance;
(5) being or having in the past been a professional practitioner certified by law
who has continuously practiced for not less than twenty years up to the date of nomination
and has been verified by such professional organization;
(6) having knowledge, expertise and experience in the areas of management,
budgeting, finance, accounting or entrepreneurship management in a position of not lower
than senior executive of a public company for not less than ten years;
(7) having in the past held the positions under (1), (2), (3), (4) or (6) for a total
period of not less than ten years.
The period in Paragraph Two shall be counted up to the date of the nomination
or the application for selection, as the case may be.
Section 233 The National Commissioners on Counter Corruption shall hold
office for a term of seven years as from the date of their appointment by the King and shall
hold office for only one term.
In the case when a National Commissioner on Counter Corruption vacates office
before the expiration of the term and no new Commissioner has yet been appointed to fill in

the vacancy, the remaining Commissioners shall continue to perform their duties, unless the
number thereof is less than five Commissioners.
Section 234 The National Counter Corruption Commission shall have the
following duties and powers:
(1) inquire and provide opinions for further proceeding according to the
Constitution or the Organic Act on Prevention and Suppression of Corruption in the case
related to the allegation that a person holding a political position, a Judge of the
Constitution Court, a person holding office in a Constitutional Organization or the Auditor
General is of unusual wealth, has committed an offence of corruption, or has deliberately
performed the duties or exercised the power in a manner contrary to the provisions of the
Constitution or laws, or has seriously violated or failed to comply with the ethical standard;
(2) inquire and decide whether or not a State official is of unusual wealth, has
committed an offence of corruption or malfeasance in office or malfeasance in judicial
office, for the purpose of further proceeding according to the Organic Act on Prevention and
Suppression of Corruption;
(3) require a person holding a political position, a Judge of the Constitution
Court, a person holding office in a Constitutional Organization, the Auditor General or a
State official to present his or her list of assets and liabilities including those of the spouse
and minor children, and inspect their assets and liabilities and disclose the result thereof,
according to the Organic Act on Prevention and Suppression of Corruption;
(4) other duties and powers as provided by the Constitution or the law.
In performing the duties under (1), (2) and (3), it shall be the duty of the
National Counter Corruption Commission to provide for measures or approaches that
ensure effective, speedy, honest and fair performance. Where it is of necessity, the
Commission may entrust a State agency, thereof the duties and powers are related to the
prevention and suppression of corruption, to proceed on its behalf in the case of non-
serious offence or of the commission of offences by State officials at some levels, or may
assign an official of administrative office of the Commission to undertake a preliminary
investigation or inquiry in accordance with the rules, procedure and conditions as
prescribed in the Organic Act on Prevention and Suppression of Corruption.

Section 235 Subject to Section 236, where there is a reasonable ground to
suspect or there is an allegation that a person holding a political position as specifically
provided in the Organic Act on Prevention and Suppression of Corruption, a Judge of the
Constitution Court, a person holding office in a Constitutional Organization or the Auditor
General has a behavior pursuant to Section 234 (1), the National Counter Corruption
Commission shall inquire into fact. If it has passed a resolution by the votes of not less than
one-half of the total number of existing Commissioners that such person has a behavior or
has committed the offence as inquired, the Commission shall proceed as follows:
(1) in case of serious violation or failure to comply with the ethical standard, it
shall refer the case to the Supreme Court for decision thereon, and the provisions of Section
226 Paragraph Seven shall apply mutatis mutandis to the trial and adjudication of the
Supreme Court;
(2) in other cases than (1), it shall present the inquiry file to the Attorney
General to institute a prosecution before the Supreme Court’s Criminal Division for Holders
of Political Positions or undertaken other proceedings according to the Organic Act on
Prevention and Suppression of Corruption.
The National Counter Corruption Commission shall complete the inquiry and
pass the resolution under Paragraph One within the period specified in the Organic Act on
Prevention and Suppression of Corruption.
Upon acceptance of the case by the Supreme Court or the Supreme Court’s
Criminal Division for Holders of Political Positions, the alleged person shall cease to perform
duties until a judgment has been rendered, unless otherwise ordered by the Supreme Court
or the Supreme Court’s Criminal Division for Holders of Political Positions. In the event
where the Supreme Court or the Supreme Court’s Criminal Division for Holders of Political
Positions has decided that the alleged person has a behavior or has committed the alleged
offence, as the case may be, such person shall vacate office as from the date of cessation of
duties and his or her right for candidacy in an election shall be revoked while the revocation
of his or her voting right for a period of not more than ten years may or may not be imposed
thereupon.

Any person whose right for candidacy in an election has been revoked on
whatever ground, such person shall not permanently be entitled to apply as a candidate in
an election or a selection of members of the House of Representatives, senators, members
of the local councils or local administrators, and shall not be entitled to hold any political
position.
In the case where the Supreme Court’s Criminal Division for Holders of Political
Positions has decided that the alleged person is guilty of the charge of unusual wealth or
corruption, his or her assets as obtained from the commission of the offence including other
assets or benefits in lieu of such assets shall vest in the State.
In considering the case, the Supreme Court or the Supreme Court’s Criminal
Division for Holders of Political Positions shall base on the inquiry file of the National
Counter Corruption Commission and, in the interest of justice, the Court shall have the
power to order further inquiry into fact and evidence.
This Section shall apply mutatis mutandis to the person under Section 234 (3)
who deliberately has not presented a list of assets and liabilities, or has deliberately
presented a false list of assets or liabilities or withheld the facts subjected to be informed
thereof, and possesses a behavior which reasonably leads to believe that such person
intends to not disclose the sources of his or her assets or liabilities.
Section 236 Members of the House of Representatives or senators or
members of both Houses in the number of not less than one-fifth of the total number of
existing members of both Houses or persons having the right to vote of not less than
twenty-thousand in number have a right to lodge with the President of the National
Assembly a complaint, accompanied by reasonable evidence, that any National
Commissioner on Counter Corruption has acted pursuant to Section 234 (1). If the President
of the National Assembly is of the opinion that there is a reasonable ground to suspect that
such act has been committed as alleged, the President of the National Assembly shall refer
the case to the President of the Supreme Court for the purpose of appointing a group of
independent inquisitors from the persons of apparent political impartiality and honesty to
inquire into facts.

The qualifications, prohibitions, duties and powers, procedure for inquiry, period
of inquiry and other necessary undertakings of the group of independent inquisitors shall be
as provided by the law.
Section 237 Upon completion of the inquiry, the group of independent
inquisitors shall proceed as follows;
(1) If it is of the opinion that the allegation has no merit, it shall order
termination of the case and such order shall be final.
(2) If it is of the opinion that the alleged person has seriously violated or failed to
comply with the ethical standard, it shall refer the case to the Supreme Court for decision
thereon. In such case, the provisions of Section 235, Paragraph Three, Paragraph Four and
Paragraph Six shall apply mutatis mutandis.
(3) If it is of the opinion that the alleged person has the behavior as alleged and
it is not the case under (2), it shall refer the inquiry file to the Attorney General to institute a
prosecution before the Supreme Court’s Criminal Division for Holders of Political Positions
and the provisions of Section 235, Paragraph Three, Paragraph Four and Paragraph Five shall
apply mutatis mutandis.

Part 5
The State Audit Commission
_____________

Section 238 The State Audit Commission shall consist of seven members
appointed by the King, with the advice of the Senate, from the persons selected by the
Selection Committee.
The selected persons must be of apparent honesty with knowledge, expertise
and not less than ten years of experience in the State audit, law, accounting, internal audit,
budget and finance and other fields beneficial to the State audit.

Section 239 The State Audit Commissioners shall hold office for a term of
seven years as from the date of their appointment by the King and shall hold office for only
one term.
Section 240 The State Audit Commission shall have the following duties and
powers:
(1) lay down the State audit policy;
(2) prescribe standard procedure in respect of the State audit;
(3) govern the State audit to be in compliance with (1) and (2) and the law on
fiscal discipline of the State;
(4) advise, suggest or recommend in relation to the spending of State funds in
accordance with the law on fiscal discipline of the State, and advise State agencies in the
alteration of errors in the spending of State funds;
(5) order administrative punishment in case of violation of the law on fiscal
discipline of the State;
The proceeding under Paragraph One shall be as provided by the Organic Act on
State Audit.
The person punished by the order under (5) may appeal to the Supreme
Administrative Court within ninety days as from the date of the receipt of the order. The
consideration by the Supreme Administrative Court shall take into account the policy on the
State Audit and the standard procedure as provided in (1) and (2).
Section 241 There shall be one Auditor General appointed by the King, with
the advice of the Senate, from the nomination by the State Audit Commission.
The qualifications and the prohibitions applicable to the Auditor General shall be
the same as those applied to the State Audit Commissioners.
The person nominated for appointment as the Auditor General shall be
approved by the Senate with the votes of not less than one-half of the total number of its
existing members, and the provisions of Section 204, Paragraph One, Paragraph Two and
Paragraph Four shall apply mutatis mutandis to the appointment of the Auditor General.

The recruitment, selection and nomination of the Auditor General shall be in
accordance with the Organic Act on State Audit.
Section 242 The Auditor General shall perform the duties fairly, impartially,
and without prejudice in its discretion, and shall have the duties and powers as follows:
(1) audit the State funds in accordance with the policy on State audit and its
standard procedure for the State audit as prescribed by the State Audit Commission and the
law on fiscal discipline of the State;
(2) assess the results and efficacies in the spending of money by State agencies;
(3) entrust officials to undertake the proceedings under (1) and (2);
(4) govern and be responsible for the performance of duties of the officials
under (3);
Section 243 The Auditor General shall be independent in performing the
duties, responsible to the State Audit Commission and be the superintendent of the
administrative office of the State Audit Commission.
The term of holding office, the vacation from office, and the performance of
duties of the Auditor General shall be in accordance with the Organic Act on State Audit.
Section 244 Where there is reasonable evidence to believe that the
spending of State funds is in a manner of corruption, deliberate performance of duties or
exercise of powers contrary to the Constitution or laws, or may cause an election to be
dishonest or unfair, and where in such cases the Auditor General has no power to proceed
in any way, the Auditor General shall inform the National Counter Corruption Commission,
the Election Commission or other concerned agencies, as the case may be, for
acknowledgement and further proceed according to the respective duties and powers
thereof.
In the proceeding of the National Counter Corruption Commission, the Election
Commission or other concerned agencies as so informed under Paragraph One, the
documents and evidence inspected or prepared by the Auditor General shall be considered
as part of the investigation file of the National Counter Corruption Commission, the Election
Commission or other concerned agencies, as the case may be.

Section 245 With a view to suspending or restraining damage on the State
finance that may arise, the Auditor General shall present the result of the inspection of an
act, which has not complied with the law on fiscal discipline of the State and may cause
serious damage to the State finance, to the State Audit Commission for consideration.
In the case where the State Audit Commission is in agreement with such
inspection result, it shall hold a consultation meeting with the Election Commission and the
National Counter Corruption Commission. If the joint meeting agrees with such result, it
shall inform, in writing, the House of Representatives, the Senate and the Council of
Ministers without delay and shall also disclose the result of the inspection to the public.

Part 6
The National Human Rights Commission
_____________

Section 246 The National Human Rights Commission shall consist of seven
members appointed by the King, with the advice of the Senate, from the persons selected.
The persons selected must have knowledge and experience in the protection of
rights and liberties of the people, be politically impartial, and have apparent honesty.
The National Human Rights Commissioners shall hold office for a term of seven
years as from the date of their appointment by the King and shall hold office for only one
term.
The qualifications, prohibitions, selection, and vacation from office of the
National Human Rights Commission shall be as provided by the Organic Act on National
Human Rights Commission. The provisions in respect of the selection must require the
participation of representatives of human rights non-governmental organizations in the
selection.
Section 247 The National Human Rights Commission shall have the powers
and duties as follows:

(1) examine and report accurate facts in relation to the violation of human rights
in every aspect and without delay, and recommend appropriate measures or approaches to
prevent or resolve the human rights violations and to provide remedy for the person injured
by the violation of human rights to the concerned State or private agencies;
(2) prepare an assessment report of the situation of human rights in the country
for submission to the National Assembly and the Council of Ministers and dissemination to
the public;
(3) recommend measures or approaches to the National Assembly, the Council
of Ministers and relevant agencies in regard to the promotion and protection of human
rights, and the revision of laws, rules or regulations for the purpose of complying with the
human rights principle;
(4) clarify and report accurate facts without delay in the case where there is an
incorrect or unfair report on the human rights situation in Thailand;
(5) encourage all sections of the society to recognize the importance of human
rights;
(6) other duties and powers as provided by the law.
Upon receipt of the reports under (1) and (2) or recommendation under (3), the
Council of Ministers shall make improvements and revisions as may be appropriate and
without delay. In any case that the proceeding may not be undertaken or may consume
time, the Council of Ministers shall promptly provide the reason to the National Human
Rights Commission.
In performing its duties, the National Human Rights Commission shall give due
regard to the well-beings of the Thai people and the common interests of the country.

 

CHAPTER XIII
Public Prosecution Organization
______________

Section 248 The Public Prosecution Organization shall have the duties and
powers as provided by the Constitution and the law.
Public prosecutors shall be independent in the consideration of ordering cases
and in the performance of duties in a speedy and fair manner and without any prejudice,
and their orders shall not be deemed administrative orders.
Personnel administration, budgeting and other proceedings of the Public
Prosecution Organization shall be independent with a specific system of salary and
remuneration as may be appropriate. The personnel administration in relation to the public
prosecutors shall be carried out by the Public Prosecution Commission, which shall
minimally consist of the Chairperson who must not be a public prosecutor and qualified
persons selected by public prosecutors of whom not less than two persons must not be or
have not been public prosecutors, as provided by law.
The law under Paragraph Three shall prescribe measures preventing public
prosecutors from committing an act or holding any position that may cause the ordering of
cases or the performance of duties to be contrary to Paragraph Two or may constitute a
conflict of interests. In this regard, such measures shall be explicitly specified and generally
applied with no power rendered for consideration of any case in particular.

 

CHAPTER XIV

Local Administration
_____________

Section 249 Subject to Section 1, the State shall give autonomy to a
locality in compliance with the principle of self-government according to the will of people
in the locality, and on the basis of procedure and form of the local government organization
as provided by law.
Establishment of a local government organization of any form shall give regard to
the will of people in the locality and their capacity of self-government in reference to the
revenue, number and density of the population, and vicinity under responsibility.
Section 250 A local government organization shall have the duties and
powers to govern and provide public services and activities for the benefit of people in the
locality according to the principle of sustainable development, and to enhance and support
availability of education for people in the locality, as provided by law.
The provision of any public service or activity, which is viewed as appropriate to
be a particular duty and power of each form of local government organization, or to make a
local government organization the principal agency in the operation of such, shall be
according to the law and consistent with the revenue of the local government organization
as stipulated in Paragraph Four. Such law shall minimally contain the provisions in respect
of mechanisms and procedures for decentralizing duties and powers, budget, and personnel
involved with such official duties and powers to the local government organization.
In providing any public service or activity falling under the duties and powers of a
local government organization, if a joint operation with a private agency or a State agency
or an entrustment of a private agency or a State agency for the operation thereof will
better benefit people in the locality than its own operation, the local government
organization may join or entrust a private agency or a State agency for such purpose.

The State shall ensure that a local government organization has revenue of its
own by organizing an appropriate tax system or tax collection system, and encouraging and
developing the earnings on its part. With a view to sufficing the operation under Paragraph
One, the State shall for the time being allocate budget in support of the local government
organization.
The law as aforementioned in Paragraph One and the law on local administration
shall provide for independence of a local government organization in management,
provision of public services, enhancement and support of education, budget and finance,
and the governing of local government organization, in so far as necessary to protect the
interest of people in the locality and of the country as a whole, prevent corruption, and
efficiently spend budget, with regard given to the appropriateness and the difference varied
by each form of local government organization. Such laws shall further provide for
prevention of conflict of interests and of intervention in the performance of duties of local
officials.
Section 251 Personnel administration of a local government organization
shall be according to the provisions of the law, along with the application of moral principle
and the consideration of appropriateness and necessity of each locality and each form of
local government organization, and the common standard set for the purpose of mutual
development or reshuffle of personnel among local government organizations.
Section 252 Members of a local assembly shall come from election.
A local administrator shall be elected by the people or be approved by a local
assembly, or shall be acquired by other means in case of the special form of local
government organization, provided that regard shall be had to the participation of people,
as provided by law.
Qualifications of the person having the right to vote and the person having the
right to apply for candidacy in an election and the rules and procedure for election of
members of a local assembly and a local administrator shall be in accordance with the
provisions of the law, with due regard given to the intent on countering corruption as
guided by the Constitution.

Section 253 A local government organization, a local assembly, and a local
administrator shall disclose to the public the information regarding the performance of
duties and the result thereof, and shall provide mechanisms enabling the participation of
people, as provided by law.
Section 254 Persons having the right to vote in the election in a local
government organization shall have the right to propose a local legislation or submit a
motion, with their names therein, to remove a member of a local assembly or a local
administrator in accordance with the rules, procedure and conditions as provided by law.

 

CHAPTER XV

Amendment of the Constitution
_____________

Section 255 Any amendment of the Constitution which has the effect of
changing the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the State or
changing the form of the State shall be prohibited.
Section 256 Subject to Section 255, an amendment of the Constitution
shall be permitted under the rules and procedure as follows:
(1) a motion for amendment must be proposed either by the Council of Ministers
or members of the House of Representatives of not less than one-fifth of the total number
of the existing members of the House of Representatives, or members of the House of
Representatives and the Senate of not less than one-fifth of the total number of the existing
members thereof, or persons having the right to vote of not less than fifty thousand in
number in accordance with the law on the public initiative of a bill;
(2) a motion for amendment must be proposed to the National Assembly in the
form of a draft Constitution Amendment thereafter the National Assembly shall consider it
in three readings;
(3) the voting in the first reading for acceptance in principle shall be by roll call
and open voting, and the amendment must be approved by the votes of not less than one-
half of the total number of the existing members of both Houses, therein must include the
number of members of the Senate of not less than one-third of the existing members of the
Senate;
(4) the voting in the second reading for consideration on a section by section basis
shall be decided by a simple majority of votes, but in case of the amendment proposal made
by citizens, the representatives thereof shall be permitted to give opinions;
(5) at the conclusion of the second reading, there shall be an interval of fifteen
days after which the National Assembly shall proceed with its third reading;
(6) the voting in the third and final reading shall be by roll call and open voting,

and its promulgation as the Constitution must be approved by the votes of more than one-
half of the total number of the existing members of both Houses, therein must include the
number of members of the House of Representatives from the political parties which have
no members holding the position of Minister, the President or the Vice-Presidents of the
House of Representatives of not less than twenty percents of the total number of members
of all such political parties, and must include the number of members of the Senate of not
less than one-third of the existing members of the Senate;
(7) after the resolution has been passed under (6), there shall be an interval of
fifteen days after which the draft Constitution Amendment shall be presented to the King,
and the provisions of Section 81 shall apply mutatis mutandis.
(8) in case the draft Constitution Amendment has the effect of amending Chapter
I:General Provisions, Chapter II: The King, or Chapter XV:Amendment of the Constitution, or
the matter concerning the qualifications or the prohibitions of holders of the positions
under the Constitution, or the matter concerning the duties or power of the Courts or the
Constitutional Organizations, or the matter which may hinder the Courts or the
Constitutional Organizations from performing their duties or exercising their powers, a
public referendum shall be held in accordance with the law on public referendum prior to
the proceeding under (7). If the draft Constitution Amendment has been passed by the
public referendum, the proceeding under (7) shall continue.
(9) before the Prime Minister presents the draft Constitution Amendment to the
King for His signature according to (7), members of the House of Representatives or
members of the Senate or members of both Houses in the number of not less than one-
tenth of the total number of the existing members of each House or both Houses, as the
case may be, shall have the right to present, with their names attached, their opinion to the
President of the House they are members or the President of the National Assembly, as the
case may be, that the draft Constitution Amendment under (7) is contrary to Section 255 or
is of the nature under (8), thereafter the President of the House receiving such opinion shall
refer the case to the Constitutional Court and the Constitutional Court shall complete its
adjudication within thirty days as from the date of receipt. While the case is under
adjudication of the Constitutional Court, the Prime Minister shall not be permitted to
present the draft Constitution Amendment to the King for His signature.

 

CHAPTER XVI

National Reform
_____________

Section 257 The national reform under this Chapter shall be undertaken to
achieve the following goals:
(1) Peace and order, unity and reconciliation, sustainable development on the
basis of the philosophy of sufficiency economy, and balanced material and spiritual
development ;
(2) Peaceful and fair society with equal opportunity to eliminate disparity;
(3) People’s happiness, good quality of life and participation in the development
of the country and democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the State.
Section 258 There shall be a national reform in various fields carried out
with a view to achieving the following results:
A. Politics
(1) Ensure that people have an accurate knowledge and understanding of the
democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the State, participate in political
activities including the monitoring of the exercise of State power, accept different bona fide
political opinions, and exercise their voting right in an election and a public referendum
freely without influence by any means.
(2) Ensure that activities undertaken by political parties are transparent and
accountable so that political parties evolve into political institutions of people holding
common political ideas, develop clear and concrete processes ensuring that political party
members truly participate and take responsibility in the implementation of political
activities and that competent, honest and ethical persons are recruited to hold political
positions.

(3) Have a mechanism making political parties accountable for their
advertisement of the policies, thereof the impact, worthiness and risk have not been
thoroughly assessed.
(4) Have a mechanism requiring holders of political positions to perform their
duties with honesty and accountability to the public.
(5) Have a mechanism for resolving political conflicts by peaceful means under
the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the State.
B. Administration of State Affairs
(1) Use appropriate technologies in the administration of State affairs and the
development of public services in the interest of State administration and for the
convenience of people.
(2) Develop an integrated database of all State agencies to serve as a data
system for the administration of State affairs and the delivery of public services.
(3) Improve and develop the structure and system of the State administration
and a State manpower plan to timely respond to the emerging changes and challenges in a
manner appropriate to different missions of State agencies.
(4) Improve and develop State personnel administration for the purpose of
motivating genuine competent persons to work with State agencies and be able to advance
their career on the basis of their capabilities and performance outcomes, being honest
persons with the courage to decide and act rightfully by giving regard to the public interest
rather than self-interest, being creative persons able to develop new innovations for
effective official service and administration of State affairs, and for the purpose of
establishing measures to protect public sector personnel from the abuse of power by their
superiors.
(5) Improve the procurement system in the public sector to make it speedy,
transparent and verifiable, equipped with a mechanism to prevent corruption in every
stage.
C. Legislation
(1) Have a mechanism for improving the laws, rules, regulations or by-laws in
force prior to the promulgation of the Constitution with a view to ensuring their compliance
with the principle in Section 77 and the international standards by applying the permit and

committee systems, to the extent of necessity, for the benefit of speedy performance with
clear responsible persons and without creating unnecessary burdens on the people, of
increased capacity of the country in any competition, and of prevention of corruption and
misconduct.
(2) Reform the system of legal education and training with a view to
developing legal practitioners to be proficient, hold legal standpoint, and adhere to morals
and ethics of lawyers.
(3) Develop a database of State laws using technologies that enable people to
conveniently access legal information and understand the essence thereof.
(4) Set up a mechanism to assist people to propose legislation.
D. Judicial Process
(1) Have a clearly specified timeframe for every stage of the judicial process so
as to ensure justice for the people with no delay, as well as a mechanism to assist the
impoverished to access the justice process, and a mechanism to strictly enforce the laws in
order to reduce disparity and unfairness within the society.
(2) Improve the criminal inquiry system by providing for a proper check and
balance between inquiry officials and public prosecutors and a clearly specified timeframe
for the performance of duties of every concerned party in order to avoid the lapse of
prescription and to build confidence of inquiry officials and public prosecutors in the
criminal inquiry, by applying forensic science in the inquiry, with provision of forensic
science service by more than one agency independent of each other so as to offer
alternatives for the public in relation to the proving of fact.
(3) Enhance and improve the organizational culture of all agencies involved
with the judicial process with the aim to facilitate convenient and speedy justice for the
people.
(4) Enforce law efficiently by revising the laws pertaining to duties, powers,
and missions of the police to be more appropriate and the laws concerned with personnel
administration of police officials to be more efficient, and clear guarantees for all police
officials of proper remuneration and fairness in the appointment, transfer, and
consideration of merit allowance according to the moral system, with due attention given to
seniority and competence in the appointment and transfer to enable police officials to

perform their duties in a free, independent of any person, and effective manner and with
pride of performing duties.
E. Education
(1) Ensure care and development of young children prior to their schooling
pursuant to Section 54 Paragraph Two so that their physical, mental, disciplinary, emotional,
social and intellectual aspects can be developed, at no costs, in correspondence with their
respective ages.
(2) Enact a law to establish a fund according to Section 54 Paragraph Six
within one year as from the date of promulgation of the Constitution.
(3) Have a mechanism and a system for producing, recruiting and developing
teachers and trainers who are of teaching spirit and genuine competence and for providing
remuneration appropriate to their teaching proficiency and effectiveness, and a mechanism
for building a moral system in the personnel administration of teaching professionals.
(4) Improve the quality of teaching and learning at all levels so as to enable
the learners to make educational choices according to their skills, and improved structures
of the concerned agencies for the purpose of coherently achieving such goal at the national
and the local levels.
F. Economy
(1) Eliminate obstacles to and enhance competitiveness of the country in
order for the nation and the people to sustainably benefit, with strong resilience, from the
participation in various economic groups.
(2) Establish a mechanism to promote and support the use of creative ideas
and modern technologies in the national economic development.
(3) Improve the tax system to make it fair, effectively reduce inequality and
increase revenue of the State in various aspects, and improve budget preparation and
spending to make it efficient and result-oriented.
(4) Establish a mechanism to promote competitiveness of cooperatives and
enterprises of all sizes, promote social entrepreneurship and environment-friendly
entrepreneurship, and establish a mechanism aiming at increasing people’s employment
opportunities.
G. Other Aspects

(1) Have an effective, fair, and sustainable management of water resources,
taking into consideration the need for water supply in every dimension, including the
environmental and climate changes.
(2) Set a fair distribution of land occupation, including checks on land
ownership and possession throughout the country for the purpose of resolving the
problems of land ownership and possession in a systematic fashion.
(3) Create an effective and environment-friendly system for management and
disposal of waste that can be used for other benefits.
(4) Improve the health security system so that people are entitled to and can
benefit from its management and equal access to quality and convenient services.
(5) Set up a primary health care system equipped with family physicians to
care for people in an appropriate ratio.
Section 259 Subject to Section 260 and Section 261, the national reform
under this Chapter shall be in accordance with the law on National Reform Plan and Strategy
which prescribes at least for a process of planning, participation of people and relevant
agencies, the procedure for the implementation of national reform, the evaluation, and the
timeframe of implementation of all aspects of national reform by specifying that the reform
in each field must be commenced within one year as from the date of promulgation of the
Constitution, inclusive of the expected results thereof within a period of five years.
There shall be an enactment of the law as provided in Paragraph One which shall
come into force within one hundred and twenty days as from the date of promulgation of
the Constitution.
Where the law under Paragraph One is not yet in effect, State agencies shall, for
the time being, carry out the reform on the basis of their existing duties and powers.
Section 260 For the purpose of revising laws according to Section 258, D.,
Justice Process (4), there shall be a committee appointed by the Council of Ministers and
consisting of:
(1) one qualified person with apparent knowledge, honesty and fairness, and
who has never served as a police official, as the Chairperson;

(2) persons, in the number as specified by the Council of Ministers, who are or
have in the past served as police officials, which must include at least the Commissioner
General of the Royal Thai Police, as the members;
(3) qualified persons, in the number equal to (2), with apparent knowledge,
honesty and fairness, and who have never served as police official, as the members;
(4) Finance Permanent Secretary, Interior Permanent Secretary, Justice
Permanent Secretary, Secretary-General of the Office of the Courts of Justice and Attorney
General, as the members.
The Committee under Paragraph One shall complete the revision of laws within
one year as from the date of promulgation of the Constitution.
Upon expiration of the period required under Paragraph Two, if the revision of
laws has not completed, the reshuffle of police officials shall be based upon the seniority in
accordance with the Rules as prescribed by the Council of Ministers and published in the
Government Gazette.
Section 261 For the purpose of reform under Section 258, E. Education,
there shall be an independent committee appointed by the Council of Ministers to
undertake studies, develop recommendations and draft the laws relevant to the proceeding
towards achieving the goals, and present to the Council of Ministers for further proceeding.
The Council of Ministers shall appoint the committee as provided under
Paragraph One within sixty days as from the date of promulgation of the Constitution, and
the committee shall complete its studies, recommendations and draft laws and present to
the Council of Ministers within two years as from the date of its appointment.

Transitory Provisions
__________________

Section 262 The Privy Council holding office prior to the promulgation of this
Constitution shall be the Privy Council under the provisions of the Constitution.
Section 263 While the House of Representatives and the Senate under this
Constitution are not yet formed, the National Legislative Assembly as established under the
Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557 shall continue to act as the
National Assembly, the House of Representatives, and the Senate. The members of the
National Legislative Assembly holding office before the promulgation of this Constitution
shall act as members of the House of Representatives or senators respectively in accordance
with the provisions of this Constitution, and the National Legislative Assembly and its
members shall terminate on the day before the convocation of the first sitting of the
National Assembly following the general election conducted under this Constitution.
Members of the National Legislative Assembly shall, other than having the
qualifications and not being under the prohibitions pursuant to the Constitution of the
Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557, possess the qualifications and not be under any of
the prohibitions, including the grounds for termination of the membership as prescribed in
this Constitution for members of the House of Representatives and senators, as follows:
(1) Section 98, except for (3), (12), (13), (14) and (15);
(2) Section 201, except for
(a) the case under (6) on the part particularly concerning Section 98, except
for (3), (12), (13), (14) and (15),
(b) the case under (7) on the part particularly concerning the circumstance
where a member of the National Legislative Assembly is a State official performing in
compliance with the duties and powers under the law or a lawful order, and the part
relating to Section 184 (1);

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(3) Section 108, except for A. Qualifications as prescribed under (3) and (4), and
B. Prohibitions as prescribed under (1), (2) and (7) and excluding the part relating to Section
98 (3) and (15) from the case under (1)
The provisions of Section 112 shall not apply to members of the National
Legislative Assembly in the holding of the position of Minister.
Provisions of any law prohibiting a person from holding a political position shall
not apply to the holding of the position of Minister under Section 264, a position of political
official appointed for the benefit of performing the duties of the Council of Ministers under
Section 264 or for benefits in performing duties of the National Council for Peace and Order
under Section 265, or a member of the National Legislative Assembly under this Section.
During the period when the National Legislative Assembly acts as the National
Assembly, the House of Representatives, and the Senate under Paragraph One, the
President of the National Legislative Assembly shall have the powers, as provided by this
Constitution or the law, of the President of the National Assembly, the President of the
House of Representatives, or the President of the Senate.
While the National Legislative Assembly performs the duties according to
Paragraph One, if a position is vacant, the Head of the National Council for Peace and Order
may inform the King to appoint a person having the qualifications and not being under any
of the prohibitions pursuant to Paragraph Two to fill in the vacancy in the National
Legislative Assembly.
In the first general election following the promulgation of this Constitution, a
member of the National Legislative Assembly may not apply for candidacy in such election,
unless he or she has vacated office of the National Legislative Assembly within ninety days
as from the date of the promulgation of the Constitution.
Section 264 The Council of Ministers carrying out the administration of the
State affairs before the promulgation of this Constitution shall be the Council of Ministers
under the Constitution until the Council of Ministers newly appointed following the first
general election according to the Constitution takes office. In this case, the provisions of
Section 263 Paragraph Three shall apply mutatis mutandis to the holding of the position of
Minister.

The Ministers under Paragraph One shall, other than having the qualifications
and not being under the prohibitions pursuant to the Constitution of the Kingdom of
Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557, not be under any of the prohibitions as required for the
position of Minister in Section 160 except on the part particularly concerning Section 98
(12), (13), (14) and (15), and shall vacate office according to Section 170 except for (3) and
(4) thereof on the part particularly concerning Section 98 (12), (13), (14) and (15) and except
for Section 170 (5) on the part particularly concerning the proceeding under Section 184 (1).
Appointment of a Minister during the period stated in Paragraph One shall
proceed in accordance with the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557,
amended by the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557, Amendment
(No. 1) B.E. 2558 and the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557,
Amendment (No. 2) B.E. 2559. In such case, there shall be no prohibitions as prescribed in
Paragraph Two.
The provisions of Section 263 Paragraph Seven shall apply mutatis mutandis to
the application of a Minister for candidacy in an election of members of the House of
Representatives under Paragraph One and Paragraph Three.
Section 265 The National Council for Peace and Order holding office prior
to the promulgation of this Constitution shall continue to perform duties until the Council of
Ministers newly appointed following the first general election according to the Constitution
takes office.
During the performance of the duties pursuant to Paragraph One, the Head of
the National Council for Peace and Order shall continue to have the duties and powers as
provided in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557, amended by
the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557, Amendment (No. 1) B.E.
2558 and the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557, Amendment (No.
2) B.E. 2559. The provisions of the aforementioned Constitution specifically in respect of the
powers of the Head of the National Council for Peace and Order and the National Council for
Peace and Order shall remain in force.

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The provisions of Section 263 Paragraph Seven shall apply mutatis mutandis to
the application for candidacy in an election of members of the House of Representatives of
a holder of position in the National Council for Peace and Order.
Section 266 The National Reform Steering Council shall continue to
perform duties pro tempore for the purpose of formulating recommendations in regard to
the national reform steering until a law on the plan and strategy for national reform has
been enacted in accordance with Section 259.
For the benefit of steering the national reform, the Head of the National Council
for Peace and Order may adjust the structure or the procedure of the National Reform
Steering Council so as to achieve more effectiveness in the national reform under Chapter
16 on National Reform.
The provisions of Section 263 Paragraph Seven shall apply mutatis mutandis to
the application for candidacy in an election of members of the House of Representatives of
a member of the National Reform Steering Council.
Section 267 The Constitution Drafting Committee appointed under the
Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557, amended by the Constitution of
the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557, Amendment (No. 1) B.E. 2558 and the
Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557, Amendment (No. 2) B.E. 2559,
shall continue to perform duties for the purpose of completing the following Organic Bills
for submission to the National Legislative Assembly for consideration and approval:
(11) the Organic Act on Election of Members of the House of Representatives;
(12) the Organic Act on Acquisition of Members of the Senate;
(13) the Organic Act on the Election Commission;
(14) the Organic Act on Political Parties;
(15) the Organic Act on the Procedure of the Constitutional Court;
(16) the Organic Act on the Criminal Procedure for Persons Holding Political
Positions;
(17) the Organic Act on the Ombudsman;
(18) the Organic Act on Prevention and Suppression of Corruption;
(19) the Organic Law on the State Audit;

(20) the Organic Law on the National Human Rights Commission.
For the proceeding under Paragraph One, the Constitution Drafting Committee
may enact new Organic bills or amend the existing laws in compliance with the provisions
and the intent of this Constitution and with the aim to eliminate all forms of corruption and
misconduct, and shall complete within two hundred and forty days as from the date of
promulgation of the Constitution. Upon consideration of the Organic bills by the National
Legislative Assembly, the Constitution Drafting Committee shall vacate office but must not
be later than the date the members of the National Legislative Assembly vacate office
according to Section 263.
With a view to proceeding in conformity with Paragraph One and Paragraph Two
in an effective and speedy manner, the Constitution Drafting Committee may request the
Head of the National Council for Peace and Order to appoint additional members of the
Committee according to Paragraph One but in total the number of members shall not be
more than thirty.
In the consideration of the Organic Bills as specified in Paragraph One, upon
receipt of the Organic Bills from the Constitution Drafting Committee, the National
Legislative Assembly shall complete the consideration of each Organic Bill within sixty days
as from the date of its receipt. In the event where the National Legislative Assembly is
unable to complete the consideration of any Organic Bill within the required period, it shall
be deemed that the National Legislative Assembly has approved such draft as presented by
the Constitution Drafting Committee.
Upon completion of the consideration of an Organic Bill, the National Legislative
Assembly shall refer such Organic Bill to the Constitutional Court or the concerned
Constitutional Organization and the Constitution Drafting Committee for review. In the case
where the Constitutional Court or the concerned Constitutional Organization or the
Constitution Drafting Committee is of the opinion that such Organic Bill does not observe
the intent of the Constitution, it shall inform the President of the National Legislative
Assembly within ten days as from the date of receipt of the Organic Bill, thereafter the
National Legislative Assembly shall appoint an ad hoc committee, consisting of eleven
members as the President of the Constitutional Court or the President of the concerned

Constitutional Organization and five members each from the members of the National
Legislative Assembly and the designated members of the Constitution Drafting Committee,
to review such draft in question and present to the National Legislative Assembly for
approval within fifteen days as from the date of being appointed. In the event that the
National Legislative Assembly has passed a resolution of disapproval by the votes of more
than two-thirds of the total number of the existing members of the National Legislative
Assembly, such Organic Bill shall lapse. In case of the passing of such resolution by the votes
of less than two-thirds, it shall be deemed that the National Legislative Assembly has
approved the Organic Bill as presented by the ad hoc committee, and further proceeding
pursuant to Section 81 shall be carried out.
For the purpose of eliminating conflict of interests, no member of the Constitution
Drafting Committee may hold a political position within two years as from the date of
vacating office according to Paragraph Two.
Section 268 Election of members of the House of Representatives under
this Constitution shall be held within one hundred and fifty days as from the date the
organic laws under Section 267 (1), (2), (3) and (4) have come into force.
Section 269 At the initial period, the Senate shall consist of two hundred
and fifty members appointed by the King upon the advice of the National Council for Peace
and Order. The selection and the appointment shall be in accordance with the following
rules and procedure:
(1) there shall be a Selection Committee of Senator of not less than nine and not
more than twelve members appointed by the National Council for Peace and Order from
qualified persons, who possess knowledge and experience in different fields and are
politically impartial, to undertake the selection of persons suitable to be senators according
to the rules and procedure as follows:
(A) The Election Commission shall complete the selection of two hundred
senators pursuant to Section 107 and in accordance with the Organic Act on the Acquisition
of Senators not less than fifteen days before the date of election of members of the House
of Representatives under Section 268, and shall present the name list s to the National
Council for Peace and Order;

(B) The Selection Committee of Senators shall select not more than four
hundred persons who possess appropriate knowledge and competence that will benefit the
performance of duties of the Senate and the national reform, according to the procedure
prescribed by the Selection Committee, and shall present the name list to the National
Council for Peace and Order. The selection shall not be completed later than the period
specified under (A).
(C) The National Council for Peace and Order shall select fifty persons and
fifty reserve persons from the persons on the name list received from the Election
Commission under (A), with regard thoroughly given to persons from diverse groups, shall
select one hundred and ninety four persons from the persons on the name list under (B)
added by the persons holding the positions of the Permanent Secretary of the Defense, the
Supreme Commander in Chief, the Commander in Chief of the Royal Thai Army, the
Commander in Chief of the Royal Thai Navy, the Commander in Chief of the Royal Thai Air
Force, and the Commissioner General of the Royal Thai Police, totaling two hundred and fifty
persons, and shall select fifty reserve persons from the name list under (B). The selection of
all categories shall be completed within three days as from the announcement date of the
result of the election of members of the House of Representatives according to Section 268.
(2) The provisions of Section 108, B. Prohibitions (6) on the part particularly
concerning the past holding of the position of Minister shall not apply to the senators
selected under (1) (B), and the provisions of Section 108, B. Prohibitions (2), Section 184 (1)
and Section 185 shall not apply to the persons appointed as ex officio senators.
(3) The National Council for Peace and Order shall present the list of two
hundred and fifty persons selected under (1) (C) to the King for His appointment and the
Head of the National Council for Peace and Order shall countersign the Royal Command.
(4) The term of the Senate under this Section shall be five years as from the date
of appointment by the King and the membership of senators shall commence on the date of
appointment. In case of a vacancy, the President of the Senate shall elevate the person
placed in order in the reserve list according to (1) (C) to fill in the vacancy and shall
countersign the Royal Command. An ex officio senator who vacates the position holding at
the time of being appointed to be a senator shall vacate office of the Senate thereafter a
proceeding shall be undertaken to appoint such person as a replacing senator. The senator

appointed to fill in a vacancy shall hold office for the remaining term of the Senate.
(5) Where there is not yet a Royal Command appointing the person in the
reserve list to fill in a vacancy as prescribed in (4), or where there is no person left in the
reserve list, or where there is no ex officio senator, for any reason whatsoever, the Senate
shall consist of the existing members.
(6) Upon expiration of the term of the Senate under (4), the selection of senators
according to Section 107 shall proceed further and the provisions of Section 109 Paragraph
Three shall apply mutatis mutandis.
Section 270 Other than the duties and powers as provided in the
Constitution, the senators acquired pursuant to Section 269 shall have the duties and
powers to follow up, recommend, and accelerate the national reform for the purpose of
achieving the goals as prescribed in Chapter 16 in respect of the National Reform and the
formulation and implementation of a national strategy. In this regard, the Council of
Ministers shall inform the progress of the implementation of the national reform plan to the
National Assembly in every three months.
A bill to be enacted for the implementation under Chapter 16 concerning the
National Reform shall be presented and considered by the joint sitting of the National
Assembly.
Any bill viewed by the Council of Ministers as the bill to be enacted for the
implementation under Chapter 16 concerning the National Reform, the Council of Ministers
shall inform the President of the National Assembly accompanied by the submission of such
bill. In the case where the Council of Ministers has not informed that it is the bill to be
enacted for the implementation under Chapter 16 concerning the National Reform, if
members of the House of Representatives or senators deem such bill to be enacted for the
implementation under Chapter 16 concerning the National Reform, the members of the
House of Representatives or senators of not less than one-fifth of the members of each
respective House may submit their signed motion to the President of the National Assembly
to consider in this respect. Submission of the motion shall take place prior to the completion
of consideration of such law bill by the House of Representatives or the Senate, as the case
may be.

Upon the receipt of the motion by the President of the National Assembly
pursuant to Paragraph Three, the President of the National Assembly shall present the
matter to a joint committee which consists of the President of the Senate as the
Chairperson, and one Vice-President of the House of Representatives, the Leader of the
Opposition in the House of Representatives, one representative of the Council of Ministers,
and one Chairperson of a standing committee, elected among the Chairpersons of all
standing committees, as the members, for its decision thereon.
The decision of the joint committee under Paragraph Four shall be made by the
majority of votes and shall be final, and the President of the National Assembly shall proceed
according to the decision.
Section 271 At the initial period of the term of the Senate as provided in
Section 269, the consideration of any bill suspended by the Senate or the House of
Representatives according to Section 137 (2) or (3) shall be undertaken by the joint sitting of
the National Assembly in case of:
(1) the amendment of penalty or elements of the offence against a position in the
official service or in the justice affairs, or of the offence committed by an official of a State
organization or agency, specifically if such amendment results in the effect that the person
having committed the offence will be acquitted or unpunished;
(2) the bill which has been passed by a resolution of the Senate by the votes of
not less than two-thirds of the number of existing members of the Senate, reasoning such
bill seriously affects the justice process.
The resolution of the joint sitting of the National Assembly to approve the bill as
provided in Paragraph One shall be made by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the
number of existing members of the National Assembly.
Section 272 At the initial period, following the election of members of the
House of Representatives pursuant to Section 268, if a circumstance arises that the
appointment of the Prime Minister from the nomination lists submitted by political parties
under Section 88 may not be carried out, irrespective of whatever reason, and not less than
one-half of the number of existing members of the House of Representatives submit their
signed motion to the President of the National Assembly to pass a resolution exempting the

nomination of the Prime Minister from the lists submitted by political parties under Section
88, in such case the President of the National Assembly shall convene a joint meeting of the
National Assembly without delay. Where the National Assembly has passed a resolution of
exemption by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the number of existing members of
both Houses, the House of Representatives shall proceed in accordance with Section 159
and may or may not nominate the persons on the lists submitted by political parties under
Section 88.
Section 273 The Judges of the Constitutional Court, the position holders in
the Constitutional Organizations and the Auditor-General holding office before the
promulgation of this Constitution shall continue to perform duties and, when the concerned
Organic Acts enacted according to Section 267 come into force, the continual holding of
such positions shall be as provided by such Organic Acts. During the period where the
Organic Acts have not been enacted according to Section 267, the vacation from office of
the Judges of the Constitutional Court, the position holders in the Constitutional
Organizations and the Auditor-General shall be in accordance with the provisions of the
Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand B.E. 2550 and the concerned Organic Acts or laws.
The procedures of the Constitutional Court or the Constitutional Organizations
and the Auditor-General shall be according to the laws in force preceding the date of
promulgation of this Constitution, in so far as it is not contrary to or inconsistent with the
provisions of the Constitution.
While the Organic Act on the Procedure of the Constitutional Court is not yet in
place, the trial and adjudication by the Constitutional Court shall be in compliance with the
Rules of the Constitutional Court applicable on the date before this Constitution is
promulgated, in so far as they are not contrary to or inconsistent with the provisions of the
Constitution.
Section 274 The National Broadcasting and Telecommunications
Commission, as established by the Act on Organization to Assign Radio Frequency and to
Regulate the Broadcasting and Telecommunications Services B.E. 2553, shall be an
organization under Section 60 Paragraph Three. The Council of Ministers shall amend the Act
in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution and present to the National Legislative

Assembly for consideration within one hundred and eighty days as from the date of
promulgation of the Constitution.
Section 275 The Council of Ministers shall complete the enactment of the
law as specified in Section 65 Paragraph Two within one hundred and twenty days as from
the date of promulgation of this Constitution, and the formulation of a national strategy
within one year as from the date such law has entered into force.
Section 276 The Constitutional Court and the Constitutional Organizations
shall provide for the ethical standard under Section 219 within one year as from the date of
promulgation of this Constitution and, if it has not been completed within the specified
period, the Judges of the Constitutional Court and the position holders in the Constitutional
Organizations shall vacate office.
In case of the vacation from office of the Judges of the Constitutional Court and
the position holders in the Constitutional Organizations under Paragraph One, the period of
one year under such Paragraph shall count from the date the newly appointed Judges of the
Constitutional Court and the position holders in the Constitutional Organizations take office,
and the provisions in Paragraph One shall apply to the newly appointed Judges of the
Constitutional Court and the position holders in the Constitutional Organizations mutatis
mutandis.
Section 277 Other than what are specifically provided in this Constitution,
the Council of Ministers shall propose the laws in accordance with Section 196, Section 198
and Section 248 Paragraph Three to the National Legislative Assembly within one year as
from the date of promulgation of this Constitution.
During the period where no improvement or amendment of laws is made to
accord Section 196, Section 198 and Section 248 Paragraph Three, the Judicial Commission
of the Courts of Justice, the Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts and the Public
Prosecutor Commission existing prior to the date of promulgation of this Constitution shall
pro tempore act as the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice, the Judicial Commission
of the Administrative Courts and the Public Prosecutor Commission pursuant to Section 196,
Section 198 and Section 248 Paragraph Three, as the case may be.

During the period where no improvement or amendment of laws is made to
accord Section 248 Paragraph Four, no public prosecutor shall hold a position of executive
member in a State enterprise or another State entrepreneur of the same nature, or any
position in a partnership or company or any other business that aims at sharing profit or
income, or be an advisor to a holder of political position or any other position of the same
characteristics.
Section 278 The Council of Ministers shall manage for the State agency it so
specifies to complete the enactment of necessary draft laws in accordance with Section 58,
Section 62 and Section 63 and present to the National Legislative Assembly within two
hundred and forty days as from the date of promulgation of this Constitution, thereafter the
National Legislative Assembly shall complete its consideration within sixty days as from the
date of receipt of such bills.
In the case where there are several agencies involved, the Council of Ministers
shall determine a period for each agency to complete its undertaking according to its
necessity but, in total, the period shall not exceed two hundred and forty days as required in
Paragraph One.
If the State agency under Paragraph One has not completed such enactment
within the period specified in Paragraph Two, the Council of Ministers shall order the
removal from office of the head thereof.
Section 279 All announcements, orders and acts, including the
performance of the National Council for Peace and Order or of the Head of the National
Council for Peace and Order already in force prior to the date of promulgation of this
Constitution or will come into force in accordance with Section 265 Paragraph Two,
irrespective of their constitutional, legislative, executive or judicial force, shall be considered
constitutional and lawful and shall continue to be in force under this Constitution. Repeal or
amendment of such any announcement or order shall be made by an Act, except in case of
the announcements or orders of the exercise of executive power in nature, the repeal or
amendment shall be made by an order of the Prime Minister or a resolution of the Council
of Ministers, as the case may be.

All affairs, including the acts related thereto, as recognized by the Constitution of
the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557, amended by the Constitution of the Kingdom
of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557, Amendment (No. 1) B.E. 2558 and the Constitution of the
Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) B.E. 2557, Amendment (No. 2) B.E. 2559, to be constitutional
and lawful shall be considered constitutional and lawful.

The Countersigned,

………………………
Prime Minister

Dieser Beitrag wurde unter Allgemeines veröffentlicht. Setze ein Lesezeichen auf den Permalink.

2 Kommentare zu Thai-Verfassung 2016 / Thai-Charta 2016 (English)

  1. emi_rambus sagt:

    berndgrimm: berndgrimm sagt:
    11. August 2016 um 11:51 am

    Na dann ist für die Issanis Alles klar!
    Und für unsere Thaksinjodler wohl auch!

    WAs soll das jetzt??

  2. berndgrimm sagt:

    Na dann ist für die Issanis Alles klar!
    Und für unsere Thaksinjodler wohl auch!

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